Hence, they argued that properly planned and delivered recreation programs can be part of a multi-approach toolkit addressing youth gang
involvement and violence.
They zeroed on youth gangs
and embraced draconian anti-crime policies that resembled the doctrine and modus operandi of the CRASH units in Los Angeles.
An example of a multidisciplinary, integrated approach to reducing youth gang
involvement and violence is the Youth & Police Initiative (YPI) developed by the North American Family Institute (NAFI) in which groups of community law enforcement agents are paired with at-risk teens from high-crime neighborhoods to discuss drug use, violence, gang activity, and youth-police interactions.
From Wannabes to Youth Offenders: Youth Gangs
' in Counties Manukau--Research Report (Ministry of Social Development 2008) classified gangs into four groups: wannabes, territorial gang, unaffiliated youth gang
and affiliated criminal youth gang
For more information on the activities of Central American gangs in the United States, see the relevant sections of CRS Report RL33400, Youth Gangs
: Background, Legislation, and Issues, by Celinda Franco.
To deal with gang activity, 36 percent of responding agencies that experienced gang problems in 2004, had a specialized unit of at least two officers who primarily handled youth gang
Or, if you are a member of a youth gang
, their attitude is hostile and they seem more concerned with locking you up than with listening to you and hearing what you have to say.
(Revised from 1982) Crime by Youth Gangs
and Groups in the United States.
In East Los Angeles, Moore (1985) observed that the social isolation and stigmatization experienced by Chicanos played key roles in the development of both an urban underclass and the establishment of youth gangs
. Vigil (1983) articulated the social forces behind these patterns: for many Mexican Americans in Los Angeles, the gang is a rational response to the isolation and marginality that they feel.
like the Crazy Cree, the Crips, the Souls of Mischief, the Westside Local Thugs and the Maple Creek Mafia are usually affiliated with one of the adult gangs.
of the postwar period were defined by very specific characteristics: comprised entirely of adolescent males, they embraced names that glorified toughness, wore distinctive uniforms (colours), organized along ethnic lines in defense of "their" neighbourhoods, planned rumbles with other gangs, formed complex alliances when it suited them and, at times, allowed community workers to negotiate truces.
Recoiling from such a "naked reality" (29), which strips him of everything he has previously valued and identified himself in terms of, Johnny reluctantly becomes part of a youth gang
when his friend Billy sees him aimlessly wandering the streets and invites him to become part of "The Moochers." The exclusively male world of the gang initially promises him a new existence anchored in a fresh sense of self and community: