Proof, (i) It follows from the proof of Proposition 2 that for F < [??], firms do not opt for works councils
, (ii) For F > [??] + r, even in the absence of works councils
no monitoring technology is installed, that is, profits are identical with and without works councils
, (iii) For intermediate values [??] < F < [??] + r, costs of deviating to monitoring are too high if a works council
is installed, while it is profitable to monitor in the absence of works councils
, (iv) For these intermediate values, firms can expect that none of the two firms will monitor if and only if works councils
This paper investigates the role of works councils
in a simple agency framework in which works councils
are supposed to monitor manager's information on behalf of the workforce.
If no works council
is present, the employer can downward adjust women's wage to women's lower productivity so that the unexplained gender wage gap reflects gender differences in productivity.
Beginning in Germany, well before the formation of the European Union, Western European companies (other than those headquartered in Britain) had works councils
in which management met with elected representatives of their workers (frequently, though not always, their union leaders).
The works council
will hardly accept the management's conditions of no-wage-rise demands, Wirtschaftsblatt added.
The implementation of a whistleblower hotline requires the consent of a company's works council
. The competent level is the Group Works Council
("Gesamtbetriebsrat"), since a whistleblower hotline is introduced uniformly within the whole group.
In scientific literature the German works council
(Betriebsrat) is indisputably the prototype of works councils
in Europe (Frege, 2002).
The origins of the ICIANZ works councils
lay in the works council
scheme operated by Imperial Chemical Industries, the parent company in the United Kingdom.
Walter Jouck, Wurzburg Site Manager, Bernhard Zentgraf, Chairperson of BASF Coatings' works council
at the Wurzburg site and Wurzburg Lord Mayor Georg Rosenthal recognized the significance of the investment, which amounts to approximately 21 million [euro].
In the Dutch public sector, however, works councils
have similar rights, because there the same Works Council
Act applies as in private industries.
This milestone follows the signature of the memorandum of understanding on June 24, 2019, and the completion of the required information and consultation process of the works councils
at Capgemini and Altran.
Pursuant to the terms of the Put Agreement, after completion of the consultation process with Souriau's French works councils
, TransDigm will have the right to require Eaton to enter into a securities purchase agreement providing for the purchase by Eaton of the shares of the Souriau-Sunbank companies.