Caption: FIGURE 9: Microscope images of the longitudinal cross-section of the composite laminates fabricated by VARIM, showing obvious waviness
of the fabrics.
In this paper, one objective reflects the optical performance, while the other reflects the surface waviness
. Theoretically speaking, if the two objectives are equally important, the weights should be set as [[omega].sub.1] = [[omega].sub.2] = 0.5.
Because the IM-3 collagen fibers near the inner surface of the contracted mantle show a higher waviness
index compared with those near the outer surface, expansion of the mantle can produce greater strain in the mantle tissue near the inner lumen before the IM-3 fibers in this region are fully straightened.
Also, with an increasing severity in the surface waviness
, secondary fluid circulation, or swirl is generated at the trough sections.
Profile data from a nominally flat surface contain form errors, waviness
, and roughness.
Relating to the reinforcement architecture, the high waviness
in the plain woven laminates would act as a barrier against impact pulse.
The measured surface waviness
, flop, and lightness were analyzed for correlation to application process parameters.
Similarly, orthogonal weave has got higher strength in weft direction comparing to warp direction due to low waviness
present in weft yarn.
The new equation takes into account the stiffness of hairs, the effects of gravity and the presence of random curliness or waviness
In the Moneuptychia species, the outer margin of the forewings does not have waves, whereas in Carminda the waviness
varies from wavy to slightly wavy.
Four components of the surface texture can be distinguished in a machined surface profile, namely: form, waviness
, roughness and microroughness (Figs.
The technology features a laser scanning sensor that extracts the surface form and waviness
data in one scan, providing new metrology capability to improve the production's process quality and performance.