In the United Utilities region, we found a trend of increasing prevalence of low and very low birth weight and stillbirth from low- to medium- to high-exposure areas, but this was not apparent in the other regions.
The diverse etiologic routes to low birth weight might be a possible explanation for the observed heterogeneity in effect of TTHM on low and very low birth weight but not on stillbirths.
Another possible explanation for the observed heterogeneity in effect of TTHM exposure on low and very low birth weight could relate to differences in baseline rates between the regions.
Premature babies with very low birth weights
may develop renal disease in adolescence or adulthood that is a consequence of retarded kidney development and overwork of the kidney.
Logistic regression analyses that corrected for risk factors such as CD4+ cell count, age, race or ethnicity, and use of tobacco, alcohol or illicit drugs revealed that the risks of premature or very premature delivery and low or very low birth weight for women who had used any combined drug regimen were similar to those for women who had used monotherapy.
Although users of combination therapy that included protease inhibitors had an elevated likelihood of delivering a baby of very low birth weight (3.
The numbers of singletons conceived with ART who had low and very low birth weight were nearly twice the predicted numbers (risk ratio, 1.
The authors estimate that conception using ART accounted for fewer than 1% of all infants born in 1997 to women aged 20 or older, but for 3-4% Of those with low or very low birth weight.
Very low birth weights resulted in charges of more than 33 times those for normal birth weights.
Although the incidence of low and very low birth weights, premature labor, transfers to acute-care facilities, and early death was significantly greater for those women who had no prenatal care, the combined impact on total cost of care is not large in an absolute sense.