Because these assessments call for value judgments
in respect of which there is room for reasonable differences of opinion, no particular opinion being uniquely right, the making of the order involves the exercise of a judicial discretion.
ECHR judges qualified the journalists assessments regarding the investigation and the statements to the police as value judgments
, but the accusation of stealing police evidence from the file it is a very serious one, requiring proof of veracity.
Hence, as he wrote in his 1944 book, Civitas Humana, science was inseparable from value judgments
, "especially the moral sciences, to which the social sciences inclusive of jurisprudence belong." (23) It followed that, for Ropke, the more important question that economists needed to consider was "what type of value-judgments were legitimately scientific and for what reasons." (24)
The relationship between value judgments
and emotions highlights another important characteristic of emotional appraisal, namely its cultural dependence (Keltner & Lemer, 2010).
Veatch takes some issue with the interpretation and use of clinical guidelines that are built upon standardized value judgments
. He also outlines in detail situations in which patients may choose which arm of a trial they wish to participate in and those in which patients need to be randomized.
Whatever their conclusions about market efficiency, the theorists of the new welfare economics quite clearly demonstrated that the state must necessarily fail in its efficiency-maximizing task unless it rules out failure by resorting to its own arbitrary value judgments
. In other words, if the state promotes efficiency, it is only efficiency as the state arbitrarily defines it by taking from Peter and giving to Paul.
are substantive claims, and so presumably aren't analytic; but there doesn't seem to be any way to test them empirically, so they must not be synthetic either.
It will require value judgments
, and it is ultimately a political decision.
This is the murky reality of policy, however, where decisions require value judgments
and different conclusions are inevitable.
So what are all these value judgments
that are attached to our supposed warts?"
ABSTRACT: We examine how fair-value-income measurement affects commercial bank equity analysts' risk and value judgments
. Normatively, holding information and other underlying economics constant, bank analysts' risk and valuation assessments should distinguish between banks with different risks, but should not depend on how banks measure income.
Don't get me wrong; I love show choir music, Broadway tunes, popular songs, contemporary Christian music--all kinds of music considered to be the "music of the people." However, I am concerned the next generation is not being exposed to a wide variety of musical styles; consequently, they will have no foundational basis for making any value judgments
about music or any of the arts.