Cohen writes that 'the very contrast between the two occupations [Jewish usurer
and charitable Christian merchant] can be seen as a false dichotomy' and that 'Shakespeare's preference for an Italian merchant over a Jewish usurer
' was not 'universally shared at the time' (771).
Third, Cajetan's treatise On Usury, less provocative and original than On Monetary Exchange, is better described as a "moderate" work that (1) provided clear and concise criteria for determining usurious mentality; (2) remained deeply rooted in longstanding theological principles, particularly regarding the obligation to make restitution; yet (3) endeavored to avoid unduly burdening the children of a usurer
when trying to fulfill this obligation.
He even goes so far as to offer the requested loan at no interest--an extraordinary gesture for a usurer
So help me God!" In contrast to Faust's suddenly staunch conscience, associated by Sokurov/Arabov with the launch of Protestantism, Mauricius's changeable devil has been recast from Goethe's original to a scuttling, church-defiling moneylender associated with rats, and is identified in the final credits only as Wucherer, an often derogatory term used for centuries to stigmatize Jewish usurers
, most notoriously in Veit Harlan's Nazi propaganda film Jud Su[ss]?
In this way Cervantes literalizes in the character of Carrizales the metaphor of the sterility of money and the unnaturalness of usury, and it is therefore unsurprising, on a thematic level, that Carrizales dies without any heirs: he is a usurer
and thus sterile.
However, as discernible in his The Fifth Decad of Cantos, in the 1930s, the usurers
he condemns are usually Jewish, and his language is vitiated by virulent anti-Semitism.
In the play, Antonio's attack on Shylock the usurer
is flawed on two counts: 1) usury was a legal commercial practice useful in sustaining the Venetian economy, and 2) Shylock lends money to Bassanio and Antonio free of interest, i.e., without usury.
Viewers of Biograph Shorts can compare inversions of greed in The Usurer
(1910) (2) and The Miser's Heart (1911).
That Milton lived off money-lending--"a usurious Citt, brought up in a usurer
's household and himself a usurer
" (72)--suggests the complexity of Milton's position, as seen from biography.
If repressed Bruno nurses his neuroses, disturbed Luca visibly battles his psychoses, most of them centering around his conflicted feeling for his usurer
His friend Bassanio undertakes to try and arrange a loan from the hated Jew usurer
Just as Scott inverted the image of the sordid Jew usurer
, he also, with Isaac of York, inverted that of the Jew as buffoon.