Depression

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Related to unipolar depression: Unipolar disorder

Depression

Period when excess aggregate supply overwhelms aggregate demand, resulting in falling prices, unemployment problems, and economic contraction.

Depression

A particularly long and/or deep recession. While there is no technical definition of a depression, conventionally it is defined as a period featuring severe declines in productivity and investment and particularly high unemployment. During the Great Depression, for example, GDP in the United States dropped 12% between 1929 and 1930 and a further 16% the following year. Likewise, unemployment rose to more than 25% nationwide and higher in some places.

Depression.

A depression is a severe and prolonged downturn in the economy. Prices fall, reducing purchasing power. There tends to be high unemployment, lower productivity, shrinking wages, and general economic pessimism.

Since the Great Depression following the stock market crash of 1929, the governments and central banks of industrialized countries have carefully monitored their economies. They adjust their economic policies to try to prevent another financial crisis of this magnitude.

depression

see BUSINESS CYCLE.

depression

a phase of the BUSINESS CYCLE characterized by a severe decline (slump) in the level of economic activity (ACTUAL GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT). Real output and INVESTMENT are at very low levels and there is a high rate of UNEMPLOYMENT. A depression is caused mainly by a fall in AGGREGATE DEMAND and can be reversed provided that the authorities evoke expansionary FISCAL POLICY and MONETARY POLICY. See DEFLATIONARY GAP, DEMAND MANAGEMENT.
References in periodicals archive ?
Patients with bipolar depression are more likely than patients with unipolar depression to have a history of multiple marriages, multiple romantic relationships, episodes of promiscuity, legal problems, or financial extravagance.
Data were collected on the basis of a single cross-sectional interview of 30 subjects with bipolar depression and 30 patients with unipolar depression, who attend psychiatry OPD at SMS Hospital, Jaipur and fulfilled the inclusion/exclusion criteria.
When looking at the diagnosis of participants in the studies, it can be noted that some studies had participants with only unipolar depression [28] (Grunhaus et al., 2003; Rosa et al., 2003) whilst the rest had patients with both unipolar and bipolar depression.
The persons with unipolar depression on the criteria of the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV- Text Revised (DSM-IV-TR) were selected through purposive sampling.
These encouraging results show that use of EPA is effective among patients with unipolar depression unaccompanied by an anxiety disorder.
The diagnostic profile of the study population was: psychoses (N=31), unipolar depression (N=23), bipolar (N=21), and others (N=8) followed by OCD (N=7); females had higher frequency of unipolar depression (41.9 vs 10.6%) while males had higher frequency of bipolar illness (31.9 vs 14%) and psychoses (42.6 vs 25.6%).
Bipolar disorder could be thought to have gift-like elements, since periods of mania can be characterized by a certain brilliance or creativity, but many other illnesses--like unipolar depression, severe anxiety, OCD, and eating disorders--would hardly be described as gifts by most sufferers.
The marketing research priority of the survey was to identify what proportion of the diagnosed unipolar depression population in the US should have been diagnosed with bipolar depression, and to determine the key drivers of misdiagnosis.
Bipolar disorder is a chronic illness associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, ranking worldwide behind only unipolar depression and alcohol abuse among psychiatric illnesses for related disabilities and overall economic burden of illness.
They address personality and mood disorders, the relationship between depression and medical illness, bipolar and unipolar depression, risk factors, models of depression, genetics, neural biological aspects, the regulation of emotion, depression and early adverse experiences, children of depressed parents, cognitive aspects, interpersonal contexts, and the role of social environment and life stress in developing depression.
Comment: Omega-3 fatty acids have been reported to be beneficial for patients with various psychiatric conditions, including unipolar depression, bipolar disorder, postpartum depression, and schizophrenia.
Differential cognitive response to a mood challenge following successful cognitive therapy or pharmacotherapy for unipolar depression. J Abnorm Psychol 1999; 108: 3-10.