Given that the European EV75 isolate grows easily in a variety of cell lines, is detected by common EV genus-specific antibodies, and that EV surveillance and typing
were performed in Spain since 1988 (2), EV75 might have begun to circulate in Spain recently.
Wilfred Beeching's influential history of the keyboard mentions the Cincinnati contest and attaches great importance to it: "Suddenly, to their horror, it dawned upon both the Remington company and the Caligraph company officials, tom between pride and despair, that whoever won was likely to put the other out of business!" Beeching refers to the contest as having established the Remington machine "once and for all." Since no one else at that time had learned touch typing
, owners of alternative keyboards found it impossible to counter the claim that Remington's QWERTY keyboard arrangement was the most efficient.
of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a university hospital setting by using novel software for spa repeat determination and database management.
the SCCmec of the MRSA in our study showed that they were of an uncommon type, which could not be classified as one of the four SCCmec types.
A correlation existed between drug resistance and phage types in that all the R-AS strains (n = 37) showed RDNC-a in bacteriophage typing
, and all the RDNC-a strains (n = 40) were resistant to at least ampicillin including two R-A and one R-AST strains.
The aims of this study were the following: 1) to extend the molecular epidemiologic survey to other parts of the world, 2) to establish a regional network of participating reference laboratories, and 3) to apply PCR fingerprinting and URA5 RFLP typing
to investigate the genetic structure and possible epidemiologic relationships between clinical and environmental isolates obtained in Latin America and Spain.
However, recent molecular typing
failed to support this hypothesis in some studies (7-9).
Isolates from patients in Iceland, the Netherlands, and Scotland were referred to the England and Wales Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) Laboratory of Enteric Pathogens for phage typing
and antibiogram analysis.
Seven serotype G1 strains and 23 genotype P strains required alternative primers for efficient typing
. Long electropherotype profiles were visualized for serotype G1 and G9 strains, and the single serotype G2 strain had a short profile.
The laboratory's role was enhanced by introducing a molecular typing
section within the Division of Clinical Microbiology; this section rapidly and systematically determines clonality and reports results immediately to the infection control practitioners so that they can quickly take appropriate action (3).
Some laboratories have used OF typing
to predict M types in epidemiologic investigations.
To investigate this possibility, we subjected 27 selected strains (6 from blood, 15 from pharyngitis, 3 from pus, and 3 pharyngeal carrier cultures) collected between January 1994 and December 1996 to emm typing
. Initial isolation, serogrouping, T typing
, and determination of opacity factor production were performed in Kuala Lumpur, by standard techniques, commercial media, reagents, and antisera (7).