Transparency

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Related to translucency: transparent, nuchal translucency

Transparency

The state in which all relevant information is fully and freely available to the public. Nearly every analyst agrees that transparent markets are desirable because they lead to greater efficiency. Laws and regulations exist in most jurisdictions encouraging or mandating transparency. For example, the SEC requires disclosure forms declaring a great many different actions when or immediately after they occur. Likewise, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act is designed to increase transparency in accounting. A minority view holds that these laws and regulations intended to create transparent markets in fact reduce efficiency. Others contend that markets are efficient with or without transparency. See also: Efficient market hypothesis.

transparency

The full, accurate, and timely disclosure of information.
Case Study Ford Motor Company executives indicated in spring 2001 that the company planned to provide shareholders and analysts with greater transparency of the firm's financial results. As part of the improved transparency, Ford was expected to report separate results from its Premier Automotive Group (PAG), comprising Aston Martin, Jaguar, Lincoln, Land Rover, and Volvo Cars. In the prior year Ford reported an operating loss of $35 million in Europe only because income from PAG and customer services mostly offset operating losses of nearly $1 billion in its other European operations. At the time Ford did not report profits for individual brands or product groups. Transparency permits shareholders and analysts a greater understanding of a firm's operations, including which parts of the firm are most and least profitable. This, in turn, places greater pressure on the firm's management to produce acceptable results in all facets of a company's operations.

Transparency.

Transparency is a measure of how much information you have about the markets where you invest, the corporations whose stocks or bonds you buy, or the mutual funds or other investments you select.

For example, in order to achieve maximum transparency in US markets, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) requires corporations to disclose all information that might have an impact on their financial status so that investors can make fully informed decisions.

Real-time trading information, increasingly available to individuals as well as institutional investors, and linked pricing systems are other steps toward complete transparency.

References in periodicals archive ?
Defects and syndromes in chromosomally normal fetuses with increased nuchal translucency thickness at 10-14 weeks of gestation.
Relation between increased fetal nuchal translucency thickness and chromosomal defects.
First trimester ultrasound screening for Down syndrome based on maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency and different combinations of the additional markers nasal bone, tricuspid and ductus venosus flow.
Vichi [8] reported that the white color of the zirconia and its low translucency still limit the possibility of imitating the natural appearance of a tooth and requires layering with feldspathic ceramic.
* NEXT was a prospective, blinded cohort study that compared cfDNA testing with standard first-trimester screening (with measurements of nuchal translucency and serum biochemical analysis) in a routine prenatal population at 35 centers in 6 countries.
The scanning sections included the CRL (crown rump length), Nuchal translucency (NT) (Fig.
"While I was the director of Foetal Medicine at Corniche Hospital in Abu Dhabi, a review of foetal medicine statistics showed that the number of women who had risk assessment using nuchal translucency was only 6 per cent," said Dr Ramanathan.
In addition, we sought to analyze concurrent trends in prenatal ultrasound practice, specifically whether nuchal translucency utilization and/or the relative importance of ultrasound soft markers at the detailed ultrasound changed after integration of cfDNA.
Additionally, it offers a wide operating temperature range of-100[degrees]F (-73.3 [degrees]C) to 400 [degrees]F (204.4 [degrees]C); extreme flexibility and resilience; hardness value of 50 durometer A; the ability to be sterilized with either gamma irradiation or autoclaving; translucency for visual contact with the flow; no taste or odor transfer to fluids; documented lot traceability with identification on bags; and documented quality control.
The quality of chrysoprase is judged in a similar way to jade, colour saturation and translucency being paramount.
It is important to note the distinction between these restricted first trimester scans and the higher risk first trimester scans evaluating intracranial and/or nuchal translucency; clearly these scans also require specialist expertise.