training


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training

the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and knowledge of people so as to improve JOB performance. A distinction can be made between vocational training, i.e. the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and pre-vocational training, i.e. the development of awareness of the world of work and employment. Education develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy which form the bedrock for more specialized occupational skills.

To determine what training is required in an organization or economy, it is beneficial to undertake a training needs analysis. As a first step the main goals or priorities have to be established; then it is necessary to consider what skills are necessary to achieve these objectives. These are compared with the existing stock of skills amongst workers. Any deficiency is referred to as a skills gap and represents the skills that should be provided by training. A comprehensive approach to training will involve a needs analysis, a programme to close this gap and a monitoring and evaluation process to determine whether it has been successful.

Although it is generally accepted that training improves job performance, UK employers are often reluctant to provide training. The UK in fact has a poor record compared with its main competitors such as Germany. Training in the UK is widely viewed as a cost rather than an investment, and one whose potential benefits are difficult to quantify on the balance sheet. Employers fear that employees, once trained, will leave or be poached for higher paid employment.

Traditionally, the training system in the UK was voluntarist (see VOLUNTARISM) in that the state had little role in directing the structures and content of training programmes and institutions. However, state intervention has grown in recent years. Currently, the system of vocational training is overseen by the recently-created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (see NATIONAL VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATION). There is also an emphasis on skill development and training amongst the unemployed in the Welfare-to-Work programme. Participants in this programme receive training as part of work placements. See MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT, ACCREDITATION OF EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING, ACCREDITATION OF PRIOR LEARNING, APPRENTICESHIP, NEW DEAL.

training

the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and KNOW-HOW of people so as to improve the performance of the LABOUR FORCE and thus enhance PRODUCTIVITY. A broad distinction can be made between ‘vocational training’, that is, training concerned with the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and ‘general education’, which develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy that form the basis for the development of more specialized occupational skills.

Vocational training is provided by firms through apprenticeships (‘on-the-job’ training), in-company short courses, management development programmes, etc. Governments also sponsor and finance vocational training initiatives as well as undertaking responsibilities for the provision of general education. Currently the system of government vocational training is overseen by the recently created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS, and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (National Vocational Qualifications - NVQs) to encourage training in transferable skills.

Under the NEW DEAL (1998), unemployed youths (in the age group 18–24) and the older long-term unemployed (aged 25 or over), receiving the JOBSEEKERS ALLOWANCE, can be placed on a one-year full-time training course. See INVESTORS IN PEOPLE, DEPARTMENT FOR EDUCATION AND SKILLS.

References in periodicals archive ?
Pre-Training & Foundation Teacher Training. GYROTONIC EXPANSION SYSTEM[R]/ GYROKINESIS[R].
Additionally, De Beers provided $800,000 toward the training centre in Attawapiskat, and $130,000 toward the Books and Home program, which has delivered almost 6,000 books to approximately 1,600 students within the five communities, a proactive approach to increase literacy.
Kane said that also included in the guidance was the establishment of an observer/controller/mentor relationship between the active and reserves that is focused on realistic training to standard that will prepare all SDDC units for their worldwide missions.
At a high state of training, muscle glycogen (energy) stores are depleted while levels of creatine kinase are increased.
Nearly a year later, 879 individuals completed four booster sessions based on their prior training. Two years after that, 723 people completed four more booster sessions.
Development of the training content was guided by three key sources.
Milazzo also is a notable trailblazer in the field of telecommunications training. Utilizing the electrical program as a model, Milazzo and assistant business manager Thomas Misciagna created a four-year telecommunications apprenticeship training program.
While this requires a great deal of training initially, it proves beneficial when it comes to providing homeland security.
According to Withers, mill safety requirements range from almost nothing at some mills to watching a video in the lobby once a year to attending an offsite eight-hour training class that includes providing urine samples for drug screening.
Depending on the length of training, one to eleven modules may be implemented in a day.
Formal classroom training is a common first step following an analyzer purchase, Anderson says.
Additionally, California courts have suggested that all employers act to ensure a workplace free of harassment by training all employees about workplace sexual harassment.

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