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the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and knowledge of people so as to improve JOB performance. A distinction can be made between vocational training, i.e. the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and pre-vocational training, i.e. the development of awareness of the world of work and employment. Education develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy which form the bedrock for more specialized occupational skills.

To determine what training is required in an organization or economy, it is beneficial to undertake a training needs analysis. As a first step the main goals or priorities have to be established; then it is necessary to consider what skills are necessary to achieve these objectives. These are compared with the existing stock of skills amongst workers. Any deficiency is referred to as a skills gap and represents the skills that should be provided by training. A comprehensive approach to training will involve a needs analysis, a programme to close this gap and a monitoring and evaluation process to determine whether it has been successful.

Although it is generally accepted that training improves job performance, UK employers are often reluctant to provide training. The UK in fact has a poor record compared with its main competitors such as Germany. Training in the UK is widely viewed as a cost rather than an investment, and one whose potential benefits are difficult to quantify on the balance sheet. Employers fear that employees, once trained, will leave or be poached for higher paid employment.

Traditionally, the training system in the UK was voluntarist (see VOLUNTARISM) in that the state had little role in directing the structures and content of training programmes and institutions. However, state intervention has grown in recent years. Currently, the system of vocational training is overseen by the recently-created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (see NATIONAL VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATION). There is also an emphasis on skill development and training amongst the unemployed in the Welfare-to-Work programme. Participants in this programme receive training as part of work placements. See MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT, ACCREDITATION OF EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING, ACCREDITATION OF PRIOR LEARNING, APPRENTICESHIP, NEW DEAL.


the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and KNOW-HOW of people so as to improve the performance of the LABOUR FORCE and thus enhance PRODUCTIVITY. A broad distinction can be made between ‘vocational training’, that is, training concerned with the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and ‘general education’, which develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy that form the basis for the development of more specialized occupational skills.

Vocational training is provided by firms through apprenticeships (‘on-the-job’ training), in-company short courses, management development programmes, etc. Governments also sponsor and finance vocational training initiatives as well as undertaking responsibilities for the provision of general education. Currently the system of government vocational training is overseen by the recently created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS, and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (National Vocational Qualifications - NVQs) to encourage training in transferable skills.

Under the NEW DEAL (1998), unemployed youths (in the age group 18–24) and the older long-term unemployed (aged 25 or over), receiving the JOBSEEKERS ALLOWANCE, can be placed on a one-year full-time training course. See INVESTORS IN PEOPLE, DEPARTMENT FOR EDUCATION AND SKILLS.

References in periodicals archive ?
There are 12,121 graduates training to be primary school teachers a In total there are 2,620 trainee science teachers
The first cohort of trainees will work alongside full-time staff for 12 months as they learn exactly what it takes to work in child and youth care.
Are there some significant differences in the attitudes of female formal and non-formal trainee teachers towards teaching profession?
Since then, regulation and increased lender and state scrutiny have tamped down these kinds of situations, and the Appraiser Qualifications Board has implemented standards limiting the number of trainees per supervisor to three.
This is likely to change as the trainee progresses.
In addition NewLaw has offered newly qualified roles to four trainees who successfully completed their training contracts this year.
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USEFULNESS OF MINI-CEX: Considering the brief introduction of mini-CEX given above, it can be adjudged that it is a valid and reproducible assessment tool with an educational impact that is both supervisors and trainee friendly with almost no or minimal extra cost.
1 This was driven by the need for consultants to continue their own professional development (CPD) as well as having the time for input into the development of trainees and medical students.
The median age of trainees with TB was 27 (interquartile range 26-28) years; 14 (54%) were male, 9 (35%) had PTB, 17 (65%) had EPTB (6 [35%] with microbiological confirmation), and 17 (65%) had presumptive TB.
Trainees have the chance to work in four departments during a twoyear period and the award winners demonstrated their ability in each seat rotation, as well as their commitment to the paralegal and trainee group, supporting various firm-wide and charitable activities and events.