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the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and knowledge of people so as to improve JOB performance. A distinction can be made between vocational training, i.e. the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and pre-vocational training, i.e. the development of awareness of the world of work and employment. Education develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy which form the bedrock for more specialized occupational skills.

To determine what training is required in an organization or economy, it is beneficial to undertake a training needs analysis. As a first step the main goals or priorities have to be established; then it is necessary to consider what skills are necessary to achieve these objectives. These are compared with the existing stock of skills amongst workers. Any deficiency is referred to as a skills gap and represents the skills that should be provided by training. A comprehensive approach to training will involve a needs analysis, a programme to close this gap and a monitoring and evaluation process to determine whether it has been successful.

Although it is generally accepted that training improves job performance, UK employers are often reluctant to provide training. The UK in fact has a poor record compared with its main competitors such as Germany. Training in the UK is widely viewed as a cost rather than an investment, and one whose potential benefits are difficult to quantify on the balance sheet. Employers fear that employees, once trained, will leave or be poached for higher paid employment.

Traditionally, the training system in the UK was voluntarist (see VOLUNTARISM) in that the state had little role in directing the structures and content of training programmes and institutions. However, state intervention has grown in recent years. Currently, the system of vocational training is overseen by the recently-created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (see NATIONAL VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATION). There is also an emphasis on skill development and training amongst the unemployed in the Welfare-to-Work programme. Participants in this programme receive training as part of work placements. See MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT, ACCREDITATION OF EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING, ACCREDITATION OF PRIOR LEARNING, APPRENTICESHIP, NEW DEAL.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson


the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and KNOW-HOW of people so as to improve the performance of the LABOUR FORCE and thus enhance PRODUCTIVITY. A broad distinction can be made between ‘vocational training’, that is, training concerned with the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and ‘general education’, which develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy that form the basis for the development of more specialized occupational skills.

Vocational training is provided by firms through apprenticeships (‘on-the-job’ training), in-company short courses, management development programmes, etc. Governments also sponsor and finance vocational training initiatives as well as undertaking responsibilities for the provision of general education. Currently the system of government vocational training is overseen by the recently created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS, and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (National Vocational Qualifications - NVQs) to encourage training in transferable skills.

Under the NEW DEAL (1998), unemployed youths (in the age group 18–24) and the older long-term unemployed (aged 25 or over), receiving the JOBSEEKERS ALLOWANCE, can be placed on a one-year full-time training course. See INVESTORS IN PEOPLE, DEPARTMENT FOR EDUCATION AND SKILLS.

Collins Dictionary of Economics, 4th ed. © C. Pass, B. Lowes, L. Davies 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
If we view trainees as students, then we can easily identify their teachers and examiners, and once we figure out the model that is used in this system, a new question is raised: should education exist in this form?
Katsumikai, the Fukaya-based social welfare corporation that operates the facility, said it had difficulty recruiting staff the past couple of years and began hiring foreign trainees last September.
MPI said that, under the GTP, trainees are given regular coaching and feedback sessions to help in their development during the 18-month period.
* Women represented 68% of trainees on the Scheme for Registration June 2014 to May 2015
Outcomes of specialty trainee clinical performance were measured by
There are 12,121 graduates training to be primary school teachers a In total there are 2,620 trainee science teachers
Chief executive of Kibble, Jim Gillespie, said: "I am delighted to welcome the first six trainees to our new programme, People Can Care.
Employers taking trainees on can also decide on an individual basis if they want to pay trainees for their time, or offer free meals on shift for their time.
To find out professional attitude of male and female trainee teachers of formal institutions
When faced with this information, the insured appraiser finally admitted that a trainee appraiser performed the inspection.
The new trainees will spend time at either of the firm's Cardiff and Bristol offices, working in different departments, learning their trade and acquiring practical skills and experience to supplement the legal theory they learnt during their university and postgraduate degrees.
As almost 300 hospital doctors gather in Cardiff for the RCP Wales-Society of Physicians in Wales joint annual conference, the RCP has published the results of its latest census of consultants and trainees in Wales, with the findings including: | 43% of consultant physicians in Wales say trainee rota gaps frequently cause significant problems to patient safety; | In 2015, 40% of consultant physician vacancies in Wales could not be filled; | 12% of trainee physicians in Wales say they rarely enjoy their job; | only two in every five trainee physicians in Wales would recommend medicine to a school-leaver; | and almost half of consultant physicians in Wales say there are times when they feel as though they are working under excessive pressure.