topography

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topography

The contours of land—such as flat, rolling, or steep.

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Determination of corneal power with a keratometer (or only the data from the anterior surface of the cornea obtained with a corneal topographer or tomographer) uses the keratometric index, which allows obtaining that approximate value without measuring the curvature of the posterior surface of the cornea, which constitutes an approach with results quite close to reality in virgin corneas.
In a previous study, a limitation by the level of aberration of some internal aberrometric parameters (subtraction of corneal to total aberrations) measured with an integrated system combining a Hartmann-Shack aberrometer and a Placido disk corneal topographer has been reported [20].
Lensar is working to integrate additional topographers, including the Aladdin Biometer.
In fact, international resolutions on demarcating the countries' borders are not just technical matters, which topographers carry out.
It then follows a chronological but overlapping look at five periods: the "imperial topographers", "whose task was to observe and describe the landscape"; "the railway builders," who promoted the west through romantic paintings of the "sublime and picturesque" (p.
In spite of the 1815 housecleaning, some continuity was maintained as two of the topographers, Majors John Anderson and Isaac Roberdeau were kept on active duty to complete surveys of the northern frontier and Lake Champlain.
Axial and tangential power maps are the most commonly available curvature map outputs in most topographers. However, the recognition of the keratoconus on these maps is not easy because there is no simple characteristic pattern.
The extensive text offers a thoughtful discussion of works by European topographers, military artists, painters commissioned by the Canadian Pacific Railway, modernists, abstractionists, and much more.
The findings he has made since 1991 have allowed historians and topographers to establish a new map of the various islands of the many ancient ports inside the huge bay, before the destructions of the late Roman and medieval periods.
topographers and scholars who worked within the Islamic geographical tradition right down to modern times never reached the level of abstraction represented by al-Maqdisi's discussion of the urban hierarchy" (p.
There can be little doubt that the legacy left by the historians, antiquarians, topographers and folklore specialists who helped to produce the Ordnance Survey did indeed contribute significantly to the efforts of those who were creating a new Irish identity in English.
Its president, Eugen David, is a copper-mine engineer, and members also include topographers, geologists and engineers, so we know what the project entails.