Contraction

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Contraction

In a business cycle, the time between the peak and the bottom. That is, a contraction occurs between the end of economic growth and the end of the subsequent recession. Contractions are characterized by layoffs, a decline in GDP, and other negative factors. However, historically, contractions have tended not to last as long as expansions.
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References in periodicals archive ?
However, it did not increase the reduction of tonic contraction and phasic amplitude, indicating that isoprenaline and darifenacin have possible synergism via the inhibition effects on different receptors.
These recordings showed series of phasic contractions (claps) separated by prolonged tonic contractions. Numerous characteristics could be quantified from these recordings including the maximal force, mean force during the first minute, force, frequency and number of claps per series, as well as the force and duration of tonic contractions.
In contrast, ACh and 5-HT produced a transient tonic contraction of DCLM immediately after treatment of agonists, followed by a gradual decline to the resting levels with a slight increase in low frequency contractions (Fig.
Relaxant effects of EOO[G.sub.8], EOO[G.sub.12], eugenol, 1,8 cineole and diltiazem on KCl-induced tonic contraction
The tonic contraction induced by KC1 (56 mM) was decreased by paeoniflorin (1 x [10.sup.-4] M) in both the epididymal and the prostatic portions (Fig.
Scallops that are active swimmers and mainly rely on phasic contractions during an escape response should have light shells, a high aspect ratio, and sink slowly, and these species should have a higher proportion of phasic muscle (relative to tonic muscle) than scallops using prolonged tonic contractions. Moreover, the phasic muscle in scallops performing mostly phasic contractions should have both a greater moment and obliqueness, in a plane perpendicular to the hinge, than that in species using prolonged tonic contractions.
Also, the tonic contractions activated by adding [Ca.sup.2+] to ANG II- or PHE-prechallenged endothelium-denuded aortic rings of It-Srac rats did not differ from similarly evoked contractions in the aortic rings of the Sham rats (Figure 4B and D).
The condition begins with successive tonic contractions in the first three months.