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the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and knowledge of people so as to improve JOB performance. A distinction can be made between vocational training, i.e. the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and pre-vocational training, i.e. the development of awareness of the world of work and employment. Education develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy which form the bedrock for more specialized occupational skills.

To determine what training is required in an organization or economy, it is beneficial to undertake a training needs analysis. As a first step the main goals or priorities have to be established; then it is necessary to consider what skills are necessary to achieve these objectives. These are compared with the existing stock of skills amongst workers. Any deficiency is referred to as a skills gap and represents the skills that should be provided by training. A comprehensive approach to training will involve a needs analysis, a programme to close this gap and a monitoring and evaluation process to determine whether it has been successful.

Although it is generally accepted that training improves job performance, UK employers are often reluctant to provide training. The UK in fact has a poor record compared with its main competitors such as Germany. Training in the UK is widely viewed as a cost rather than an investment, and one whose potential benefits are difficult to quantify on the balance sheet. Employers fear that employees, once trained, will leave or be poached for higher paid employment.

Traditionally, the training system in the UK was voluntarist (see VOLUNTARISM) in that the state had little role in directing the structures and content of training programmes and institutions. However, state intervention has grown in recent years. Currently, the system of vocational training is overseen by the recently-created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (see NATIONAL VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATION). There is also an emphasis on skill development and training amongst the unemployed in the Welfare-to-Work programme. Participants in this programme receive training as part of work placements. See MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT, ACCREDITATION OF EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING, ACCREDITATION OF PRIOR LEARNING, APPRENTICESHIP, NEW DEAL.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson


the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and KNOW-HOW of people so as to improve the performance of the LABOUR FORCE and thus enhance PRODUCTIVITY. A broad distinction can be made between ‘vocational training’, that is, training concerned with the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and ‘general education’, which develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy that form the basis for the development of more specialized occupational skills.

Vocational training is provided by firms through apprenticeships (‘on-the-job’ training), in-company short courses, management development programmes, etc. Governments also sponsor and finance vocational training initiatives as well as undertaking responsibilities for the provision of general education. Currently the system of government vocational training is overseen by the recently created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS, and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (National Vocational Qualifications - NVQs) to encourage training in transferable skills.

Under the NEW DEAL (1998), unemployed youths (in the age group 18–24) and the older long-term unemployed (aged 25 or over), receiving the JOBSEEKERS ALLOWANCE, can be placed on a one-year full-time training course. See INVESTORS IN PEOPLE, DEPARTMENT FOR EDUCATION AND SKILLS.

Collins Dictionary of Economics, 4th ed. © C. Pass, B. Lowes, L. Davies 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
And keep in mind that although this control is necessary for successful toilet training, it certainly is not sufficient.
Recent studies have identified incorrect toilet training as being predictive of persistent urinary symptoms, such as urinary incontinence, enuresis, recurrent urinary tract infection and childhood constipation.
Rather, toilet training should be restored as everybody's business and placed as a priority on everyone's agenda and radar.
I felt there must be a more obvious solution, so I had the idea for disposable toilet training pads that fit in a child's own pants.
Like other milestones, such as walking and talking, children vary considerably over when they are ready to start toilet training.
Some parents and toilet training experts are skeptical.
The book incorporates tips to help the reader settle a dog into its new life, offers help with toilet training and dogs that bark, jump up or run away, along with advice on how to deal with fearful behaviour.
There is a collective conspiracy among health care providers and parents in the West to prevent age-appropriate toilet learning by children ("Toilet Training? Wait Until Child Wants to Please," July 2006, p.
Washington -- It's not uncommon for children to go through a relapse period with toilet training, and the trick to management may just be for everyone to lighten up, according to one expert speaking at a meeting sponsored by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
NEW YORK -- Toilet training is surely one of the most trying experiences that parents and their children have to go through.
I HAVE a two year-old son who I have been toilet training yet, when I am in Liverpool city centre, there are very few public toilets.