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The norms and shared attitudes that pervade an ORGANIZATION. It may be expressed in symbols, rituals and the language used by organization members. It thus constitutes the distinctive characteristics of an organization. In recent years managerial interest in organizational culture has grown enormously It is believed that the culture will influence how individuals behave at work and hence will affect both individual and organizational performances.

A number of types of culture have been identified in this respect:

  1. power culture, characterized by an emphasis on personal charisma, risk-taking and a low level of respect for procedures. This might be found in a small entrepreneurial organization, where power tends to be concentrated in the entrepreneur;
  2. rôle culture, characterized by well-defined procedures and job roles, and an emphasis on conformity. This might be found in an established BUREAUCRACY for example government administration;
  3. task culture, characterized by an emphasis on problem-solving by expert teams. Groups are formed to deal with particular problems. Once the task is completed the group may be disbanded. Here the culture is one which attaches importance to expertise, though in fact expertise may be less developed in organizations of this sort than in role culture organizations, where job roles are more specialized. Task culture places a much greater emphasis on flexibility and creativity than does role culture;
  4. person-oriented culture, characterized by an emphasis on meeting the needs of individuals in the organization. This is often found in small, ‘alternative’ organizations. It may also characterize small organizations composed mainly of PROFESSIONALS, such as small consultancy companies, where it is deemed important that individuals be given some freedom to shape their jobs so that they can pursue particular professional or other ‘acceptable’ outside interests (for example, being a local councillor).

A concern of many managers in recent years has been that the prevailing culture of their organization is inappropriate, or even obstructive, to a desired change in objectives. For instance, a role culture, where jobs are specialized and well-defined, could obstruct creativity and hence prevent an organization from becoming more entrepreneurial. As a result much attention recently has been devoted to changing cultures. It is doubtful, however, whether managers can actually achieve dramatic cultural change in the short term. Culture is influenced by a complex of factors, such as the character and background of the workforce, many of which are to some extent independent of managerial action. See MANAGEMENT STYLE. MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC, EXCELLENCE CULTURE.

References in periodicals archive ?
Effective immediately, Dr Zapata brings to her new position more than 30 years of experience in tissue culture, plant transformation, and plant production, including creating and implementing programmes for tissue culture cloning and clean stock programmes to ensure only the highest quality material is produced.
Some of the latest trends that have been observed in the global cell and tissue culture supplies market include an increasing number of contract research and growing popularity of serum-free, specialty, and customized media solutions.
The experimental date palm orchard developed in 2004 inside the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) campus at Suwaikh containing 12 plants each from 20 different date palm cultivars produced by tissue culture method was used for the study.
And Tissue Culture are hoping music lovers will do just that when they play as part of a stellar line-up of local acts at Tiny Lights' Nothing Like Christmas 2 all-day show at the Cluny 2 on Saturday, December 8.
We are trying to apply techniques, like tissue culture, for mass production of plants.
The tissue culture procedure is not only solving the problem of planting material, but also helping to increase production of bamboo saplings within a short span of time.
Tissue culture commonly refers to the culture of animal cells and tissues, while the more specific term plant tissue culture is being named for the plants.
Plant tissue culture techniques have become a powerful tool for studying basic and applied problems in plant biology.
Capripoxvirus grow in tissue culture of bovine, ovine or caprine origin, although primary or secondary cultures of lamb testis or lamb kidney cells are considered to be the best (Carn, 1995 and Davies and Mbugwa 1985).
Plant tissue culture is known internationally as micropropagation and is the multiplication of plants under sterile conditions with some sort of nutrient solution or medium.
Abu Dhabi: UAE University and an Indian company have signed a MoU for Strategic Partnership for Transfer of Technology for setting up a state-of-the-art Date Palm Tissue Culture Production Unit.