v] = 1 at thermal equilibrium
, then a second expression, which retains the importance of reflectivity, is obtained,
For this reason, it is clear that heated cavities cannot be in thermal equilibrium
during the measurements, as this condition demands the complete absence of net conduction, convection, or radiation (neglecting the amount of radiation leaving from the small hole for discussion purposes).
They maintain a low temperature of the diffuser and generate, consequently, a thermal equilibrium
between the wall surface and the absorbed air.
Although the gas preheating temperature could have been calculated from the equation for gas adiabatic expansion, trial and error is generally required to find out the best preheating temperature to reduce the time for reaching initial thermal equilibrium
to an acceptable degree.
Further, the assumption of thermal equilibrium
makes it difficult to model the dynamics of sections in a column that are purposely used for heat transfer.
The research team based its resulting "global thermal comfort index" on several local indices: the thermal equilibrium
of the human body, discomfort caused by drafts, and horizontal and vertical temperature gradients.
It is also possible, under special circumstances, to drive the reflectivity of a cavity through a temporary violation of thermal equilibrium
sorb,Eq]] is the ratio when the refrigerant and its sorbent reach thermal equilibrium
at the temperature and pressure in the adsorber and is also the maximum ratio possible for that given condition.
In following part of this paper the parameters that had an impact in the thermal equilibrium
between heat airflow and the interior temperature of a local space ([t.
The cryostat may be pressurized and the liquid heated to come into thermal equilibrium
at temperatures as high as 5 K.
The presence of the trap doors ensured that samples could be loaded and removed from the chamber rapidly, without affecting the thermal equilibrium
During the 3-sec immersion time, the walls of the sampling cup are heated to thermal equilibrium
with the molten iron.