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the exchange of information in an ORGANIZATION. For organizations to work effectively, it is vital that information be communicated to those who need it. For example, the pay department would not be able to function properly if it were not notified of employees' hours of work. In this sense organizations can be conceived of as systems for exchanging information. Withholding information, i.e. failure to communicate, can be an effective means of exerting power over others in the organization. If a manager is not fully aware of what is going on in the organization he or she may be unable to influence decisions or events.

Often the effective transmission of information is impeded. As a piece of information is passed from top to bottom of an organization it may be modified by the misinterpretation or bias of each individual involved, so that by the time the information reaches its final destination it has a very different content. Effective communication can also be time-consuming, and hence arduous to perform. However, the effort can be worthwhile since those employees who feel they are not fully informed about matters relevant to their job may become demotivated and dissatisfied. As a result performance suffers. There is also evidence that individuals are more likely to respect bosses who they feel keep them informed. In addition to these ‘behavioural’ aspects of communication the process or ‘technology’ of internal and external communication has changed dramatically in the last decade. For example, conventional telephone systems (based on fixed-wired handsets) have been increasingly augmented by the cordless (mobile) telephone and accessories such as VOICE MESSAGING. Moreover, many businesses have integrated their PC (personal computer) networks and telecommunications to take advantage of value-added network services such as ELECTRONIC MAIL, VIDEO CONFERENCING and ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE. These developments, while enhancing the immediacy and effectiveness of communications, have also facilitated flexibility and mobility, allowing staff to reduce their dependency on being physically present at an office in order to conduct business. See CONSULTATION, EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT, EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION, INDUSTRIAL DEMOCRACY, COMMUNITY CHARTER OF FUNDAMENTAL SOCIAL RIGHTS, DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION, INFORMATION MANAGEMENT, INFORMATION HIGHWAY, BUSINESS PROCESS RE-ENGINEERING.

References in periodicals archive ?
This edition has been updated with current information and has a new chapter on communication in complementary medicine; more tables, graphics, updated cartoons, and photos; more case studies; new material and examples of multicultural interaction; emphasis on therapeutic communication across the life span in different situations; discussion of bullying and approaches for those left behind after suicide; discussion of palliative and hospice care in terms of life-altering and life-threatening illness, including recent legislation on assisted death; and new information on characteristics of professionalism.
Therapeutic communication in nursing allows for the patient and family to feel like someone actually cares for him or her in their time of need.
Clinical implications: On the perspective of clinical implications training be offered in regards to raising awareness about ulterior transactions that can affect communication negatively, patient autonomy and therapeutic communication in particular, and patients requiring the use of special communication methods.
We designed an eight-item multiple-choice test to measure student knowledge of therapeutic communication and psychiatric mental health assessment.
Among other matters, the survey identified that very few of the participants received therapeutic communication tools during their undergraduate studies; a fallacy that was heightened during the graduate training, given that they received no communication formation.
In these instances, I reflect on the SPIKES protocol as a guide, but I also recruit the principles of therapeutic communication learned in basic nursing school.
The third workshop discussed therapeutic communication skills such as when and how to use touch to convey support, caring, and compassion, and examined what was appropriate communication from the perspective of the American health care culture.
Therapeutic communication skills form an integral part of the nurse-patient relationship, and the importance of the one-to-one nurse patient relationship has been cited in the nursing literature for more than 50 years (Frisch & Frisch, 2006; Lego, 1999; Welch, 2005).
In our baccalaureate program at a small, Catholic liberal arts college, the gero-psychiatric unit seemed an ideal setting to learn therapeutic communication techniques as well as group leadership skills.
Written in a clear and concise style, this jargon-free text provides student clinicians with the practice principles and fundamental communication skills used to facilitate effective therapeutic communication with clients.
2) Arthur Slatkin, "Enhancing Negotiator Training: Therapeutic Communication," FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, May 1996, 1-6.
She added that the nurses use a lot of motivational techniques and high-level therapeutic communication to assist members.

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