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The analysis of hardened cement paste surface scaling caused by de-icing salt solutions under cyclic freeze-thaw conditions based on the data presented in Figs 7 and 8 leads to the conclusion that the biggest scaling occurs in specimens without NST additive exposed to 5% Ca[Cl.
The plaintiffs further allege that High Carbon Concrete is a defective product that suffers surface scaling, pitting and/or pop-outs within the first few years after installation.

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