Although previous researchers investigating the effect of empowering leadership on subordinates
' task performance have predominately assumed a psychological empowerment mechanism (e.g., Chen et al., 2014), there is still limited knowledge about unlocking this mediating mechanism in the empowerment-performance relationship.
This article addresses the embattling question of when and to what extent a subordinate
lawyer may rely on the direction of a supervising lawyer when confronted with an ethical dilemma.
A manager plays many roles, including decision making, supervision of subordinates
, and participation in production directly.
Leader Member Exchange theory talks about a high degree of mutual influence and obligation between superiors and subordinates
, and asserts that such a relationship will result in several important positive outcomes such as lower turnover, higher subordinate
performance, citizenship behaviour, commitment, and satisfaction.
At Gettysburg, Lee seemed reluctant to assemble his key subordinates
to jointly discuss strategy.
Another chapter on leadership vision enhances a manager's effectiveness through creative thinking on influencing subordinates
' performance to elevate their efforts to much higher levels of productivity and personal behavior.
He leaves subordinates
completely in the dark, with only an occasional hint or a guess as to how they're performing.
Which leadership style of superiors will give their subordinates
more freedom on the job?
If, for example, the executive pairs the phrase, "We had a good, aggressive management team at my old company," with an enthusiastic tone of voice, she has increased enormously the probability that the subordinate
will try to pair himself with aggressive traits in his own behavior, whether he is truly aggressive or not.
When he asked them why, they said they felt they no longer were getting personal service, that they were being handed off to subordinates
. Apparently, clients were interpreting those contacts from subordinates
as evidence junior staff members now were servicing them.
Individuals who imprudently believe that they can avoid criticism or counseling by passing the blame to their subordinates
are actually fooling themselves.