Critics, among them Addison, Defoe, and Swift, attacked the ensuing corruption of Walpole's administration, employing rhetorical strategies differentiating the traditional citizenship of those with landed wealth from that of the new class of rentiers and stockjobbers
, who made money from the intangible products of the financial revolution (426-36).
Some linked them to self-interested stockjobbers
and politicians who profited from the war.
Although Manning at times included stockjobbers
and speculators in his category of the leisured, he was scarcely thinking of those who did not labor for a living as "capitalists." Rather, his leisured few, numbering what he took to be about one-eighth of the population, were those traditionally referred to as aristocrats or gentlemen.
Virginia planters such as John Taylor, George Mason, and Richard Henry Lee argued that Hamilton's program promised a windfall to the "paper interest" - speculators and "stockjobbers
" - who held government securities and bought shares in the Bank of the United States.
Into the breach stepped the stockjobbers
and brokers operating in the London stock exchange.
Back in 1852, President James Buchanan wrote to future president Franklin Pierce that "the host of contractors, speculators, stockjobbers
and lobby members which haunt the halls of Congress ...