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The norms and shared attitudes that pervade an ORGANIZATION. It may be expressed in symbols, rituals and the language used by organization members. It thus constitutes the distinctive characteristics of an organization. In recent years managerial interest in organizational culture has grown enormously It is believed that the culture will influence how individuals behave at work and hence will affect both individual and organizational performances.

A number of types of culture have been identified in this respect:

  1. power culture, characterized by an emphasis on personal charisma, risk-taking and a low level of respect for procedures. This might be found in a small entrepreneurial organization, where power tends to be concentrated in the entrepreneur;
  2. rôle culture, characterized by well-defined procedures and job roles, and an emphasis on conformity. This might be found in an established BUREAUCRACY for example government administration;
  3. task culture, characterized by an emphasis on problem-solving by expert teams. Groups are formed to deal with particular problems. Once the task is completed the group may be disbanded. Here the culture is one which attaches importance to expertise, though in fact expertise may be less developed in organizations of this sort than in role culture organizations, where job roles are more specialized. Task culture places a much greater emphasis on flexibility and creativity than does role culture;
  4. person-oriented culture, characterized by an emphasis on meeting the needs of individuals in the organization. This is often found in small, ‘alternative’ organizations. It may also characterize small organizations composed mainly of PROFESSIONALS, such as small consultancy companies, where it is deemed important that individuals be given some freedom to shape their jobs so that they can pursue particular professional or other ‘acceptable’ outside interests (for example, being a local councillor).

A concern of many managers in recent years has been that the prevailing culture of their organization is inappropriate, or even obstructive, to a desired change in objectives. For instance, a role culture, where jobs are specialized and well-defined, could obstruct creativity and hence prevent an organization from becoming more entrepreneurial. As a result much attention recently has been devoted to changing cultures. It is doubtful, however, whether managers can actually achieve dramatic cultural change in the short term. Culture is influenced by a complex of factors, such as the character and background of the workforce, many of which are to some extent independent of managerial action. See MANAGEMENT STYLE. MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC, EXCELLENCE CULTURE.

References in periodicals archive ?
In present study, the groundnut media have been further tested for their efficacy as a culture medium and their utility to study other tests like motility and antibiotic sensitivity, and also as a medium for maintenance of stock cultures.
For long-term maintenance of stock cultures, we found a simple pea-based medium to be very successful.
This mode of transmission is plausible because 1) the materials used in the clean-up of the spill were processed in room A before disposal, 2) the phage type of SE among four ill employees (type 8) was the same as that of the stock culture involved in the spill and different from that of the seven isolates from other SE cases (type 13A) reported in Maine during the same approximate period, 3) a strong epidemiologic association was determined between illness and working in room A, and 4) inadequate handwashing practices and lack of PPE were noted in room A.
The strains were maintained as stock culture in glycerol at 80 [degrees] and tested further by the E test method for susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (6).
Each stock culture contained a single algal clade (sensu Rowan and Powers, 199la; Table 1).
The stock culture media consisted of f/2 in sterile seawater.
The microbial agent was a 24 hour stock culture of Serratia marcescens, approximately 1x|10.
Stock Culture Medium, Catalogue number pink G3257,3050, manufacturer GE healtcare or equivalent (*).
Sub-culture was carried out until monoculture was obtained and transferred to JM broth for using as stock culture.
Although gross amount of fertilizers used for forest production of tree stocks may not be comparable as for agricultural and horticultural crops, however, the risk arisen from containerized tree stock culture cannot be overlooked (Juntunen and Rikala, 2001; Juntunen et al.
The broth stock culture was prepared by inoculating colonies of agar culture of microalgae into prepared broth.