Again I was a man; stronger than ever was the stimulus
now, louder than ever the call on every drop of true man's blood in my perishing frame.
A special stimulus
of the most intense kind came from the struggle with Spain.
We may say, speaking somewhat roughly, that a stimulus
applied to the nervous system, like a spark to dynamite, is able to take advantage of the stored energy in unstable equilibrium, and thus to produce movements out of proportion to the proximate cause.
These training structures have produced different yields (percentage of participants who respond in accordance with stimulus
equivalence) of equivalence class formation; both MTO and OTM have been shown to produce high yields of equivalence formation, whereas LS has produced lower yields (Arntzen, 2012; Arntzen, Grondahl, & Eilifsen, 2010; Arntzen & Hansen, 2011; Arntzen & Holth, 1997; Fields, Hobbie, Adams, & Reeve, 1999).
These studies used different variations of matching-to-sample tasks, where discrete trials are performed in which a sample stimulus
(usually a spoken word) is presented, immediately followed by two or more stimuli (usually objects or pictures) that serve as matching options.
Specifically, Zhu and Suzuki (2016) found particular facial activity occurring about 150ms after surprise stimulus
onset that was not affected by conscious suppression, whereas activity subsequent to that (from about 300 ms to 500 ms following onset, depending on the muscle region) was.
It has long been known that animals prefer to explore a novel object over a familiar one when they can choose which stimulus
to approach (Berlyne, 1950).
The head of the Bank of Japan, Haruhiko Kuroda, has defended the central bank's massive stimulus
Post hoc testing (with a Bonferroni correction applied, resulting in a significance level set at p < 0.0125) revealed that CoG latitude was smaller when five stimuli were delivered than when one stimulus
was delivered (F(1.00,33.00) = 8.23, p = 0.01).
Such an absence of stimulus
control was attributed to the differences between scheduled and obtained reinforcers due to non responding in the [t.sup.D] subcycle of various T cycles within sessions, as well as to the absence of a response pattern in the presence of the correlated stimulus
due to its cancelation by the first response emitted in its presence.
Another study about the building of equivalent musical stimulus
classes with undergraduate students, Hanna et al.
In both procedures previously described, the triangle had the discriminative function of a positive stimulus
(S+, the stimulus
related to the reinforcer), and the circle had the discriminative function of a negative stimulus
(S-, the stimulus
not related to the reinforcer).