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Hence, in a many-to-one (MTO) training structure, the A stimuli are trained to the C stimuli, and the B stimuli are trained to the C stimuli when a class consists of three members.
For example, the P300 component is well known to appear in response to emotional stimuli, and shows greater amplitudes in response to negative stimuli than to positive ones (e.g., Chapman, McCrary, Chapman, & Martin, 1980; Conroy & Polich, 2007; Cuthbert, Schupp, Bradley, Birbaumer, & Lang, 2000; Delplanque, Silvert, Hot, Rigoulot, & Sequeira 2006a; Delplanque, Silvert, Hot, & Sequeira, 2006b; Ito, Larsen, Smith, & Cacioppo, 1998; Keil, Bradley, Hauk, Rockstroh, Elbert, & Lang, 2002; Naumann, Bartussek, Diedrich, & Laufer, 1992).
Therefore, it is usually inferred from the ability of animals to discriminate between the exposed stimuli after one of them has been conditioned (i.e., Honey & Hall, 1989; Mackintosh, Kaye, & Bennett, 1991; Rodriguez & Alonso, 2011; Wills, Wells, & Mackintosh, 1994).
During nonnavigated TMS mapping, five stimuli are commonly delivered to each site on a 10 x 10 cm grid positioned over the participant's scalp [5].
Learning conditional relations can convert isolated events into equivalent stimuli, i.e., different stimuli may become replaceable in the control of behaviors (Sidman & Tailby, 1982; Vaughan, 1988).
Among the experimental designs used in this discipline, procedures that taught simple discrimination with the simultaneous and successive presentation of stimuli can be highlighted.
The success of reinforcement interventions, however, largely depends on the identification of preferred stimuli that function effectively as reinforcers (Walker et al., 2007).
If fear is a primary component of fundamentalism, then reactions to taboo stimuli should at least approach that of traditional fear reactions to feared stimuli.
Generalization is the conceptual separation of general properties unifying a number of stimuli or events (Zentall et al., 2008).