To investigate if deep brain stimulation
increases dopamine, the researchers performed PET scans of patients with Parkinson's disease using a tracer for VMAT2.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation
and other forms of therapeutic neuromodulation are welcome additions for managing treatment-resistant depression, OCD, and possibly other disorders.
The location of cingulum bundle stimulation
is distinct from other brain locations that process reward, such as ventral striatum, which has been targeted for the treatment of depression and addiction.
device provided by MED-EL (MED-EL AG[R]; Innsbruck, Austria) generated the electrical stimuli.
The potential difference between the active electrodes was kept fixed at 2 V and the stimulation
frequency equal to 40 Hz (in the following these setting parameters will be referred to as "Reference"), as commonly used in chronic MCS therapy for neuropathic pain [5, 32]
, the patients were seated in a reclining armchair with both hands pronated on a pillow.
This should be done over several training sessions during which stimulation
is not used, as we ideally want the dog to disassociate the collar from stimulation
Because cervical vagal nerves are accessible through surgical approaches, they are the prime target for neuromodulation with the hope that their stimulation
will achieve therapeutic effects distant beyond the nerves stimulated.
Overall, 64% of patients at the top three stimuli levels reduced their pain level by at least half 2 hours after the treatment, compared with 26% of patients using the sham stimulation
. Average reductions were 46% for the 200-microsecond stimulus, 48% for 150, and 39% for 100.
In this study, the subjects' EEG and HRV were measured to determine the physiological impact of color light stimulation
and the changes that occur in terms of sleep induction depending on the color light stimulation
(preferred and non-preferred colors).
When compared to STN stimulation
, unilateral cZI stimulation
with mean frequency of 150 Hz led to greater improvement in tremor control and overall Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor scores.