The lowest level of cortisol was observed in elective caesarean section group without labour.4,7 In the present study, the cortisol level of the vacuum-assisted delivery group was significantly higher than that of spontaneous delivery
All subjects in the spontaneous pregnancy group were born by normal spontaneous delivery
, while all subjects in the IVF group were born by cesarean section.
The baby must also be born through normal spontaneous delivery
in a government-run health facility.
The Fetal Medicine Foundation Second Trimester Screening Group from London, for instance, reported a 44% lower rate of spontaneous delivery
before 34 weeks' gestation in women who were randomized to receive daily vaginal progesterone than in those randomized to receive a placebo (19.2% vs.
In this randomized, placebo-controlled study of 250 gravidas with a cervical length of 15 mm or less, those who were randomized to a daily dose of 200 mg of intravaginal micronized progesterone starting at 24 weeks' gestation had a lower rate of spontaneous delivery
before 34 weeks (19.2%) than did women in the control group (34.4%) (relative risk, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.65).
Three months postpartum, these symptoms persisted in 5% of the forceps delivery group, compared with 2.5% in the vacuum extraction group and 2% in the spontaneous delivery
When every woman has an epidural and their doctors are trained in C-section, spontaneous delivery
, and some vacuum extraction, but are not equipped to do forceps, then we must accept a higher C-section rate.
Expectant management, on the other hand, typically means allowing spontaneous delivery
of the placenta without a uterotonic agent or traction on the cord.
Another 168 placentas (10.5%) took 10-20 minutes for spontaneous delivery