At the side of the spinous process
, the laminae can be seen as two horizontal hyperechoic lines with a posterior acoustic shadow.
Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the spine showed an increased gap between the 1st and 2nd lumbar spinous processes
and 2nd lumbar vertebral fracture (figures not shown).
Robinson, "Comparison of CD HORIZON SPIRE spinous process
plate stabilization and pedicle screw fixation after anterior lumbar interbody fusion: invited submission from the joint section meeting on disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves, March 2005, " Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine, vol.
(Fig-3) Lateral mass fixation increases segmental stability in flexion by 92% and in extension by 60% whereas spinous process
wiring improves stability in flexion by 33% but fails to prove stability in extension.
* Base and height: Distance between inferior surface of anterior acromial tip and spinous process
; Length of spinous process
To determine whether patients qualified for study inclusion, patients were palpated for tenderness at the cervical reflex points which are located at the temporal bone styloid processes (adjacent to C1), lateral spinous processes
(C2-C7) and lateral tips of the transverse processes (C1C7).
Spring tests and segmental mobility tests of the cervical spine could not be tolerated secondary to the acute nature of pain, but he had stiffness in the T3-T5 spinous processes
. With motion testing the thoracic spine had a flexion dysfunction to the right side and was limited in extension, left sidebending, and rotation at T4.
The axis of rotation was positioned at the distal edge of the table to approximate the location of a participant's second sacral spinous process
. Marker placements on the instrumented trunk and passive movement device were analogous to the marker placements used during passive movement testing (Figures 2 and 4).
A characteristic cervical vertebrae consists of vertebral body, pedicle, lamina, transverse process, spinous process
, and superior and inferior articular process (Drake et al., 2010).
The transducer was placed oblique parasagittally 3 cm laterally to the T4 spinous process
with the orientation marker facing the cephalad, and all the three back muscles, trapezius, rhomboid major and erector spinae, were identified.
(1999), spinous process
bifurcation (SPB) of only the C3 and C4 vertebrae are used for this approach.
--trunk inclination: the angle between the line connecting the C7 and L5 spinous processes
and the vertical projection of the C7 spinous process