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The people who administer a company, create policies, and provide the support necessary to implement the owners' business objectives.


1. The persons or institutions that administer a company. That is, management has the responsibility to direct employees, set and enforce policies, and generally ensure that the company fulfills its goals (which management itself often sets). Management is responsible to the board of directors (of a publicly-traded company) and ultimately to the company's owners. In small companies, owners and managers are often the same people.

2. See: Asset management.


The process of organizing and directing human and physical resources within an ORGANIZATION so as to meet defined objectives. The key management roles are:
  1. planning how to carry out the various activities which are required to achieve the objective. This involves establishing an action programme (see BUSINESS PLAN) and an appropriate organization structure within which tasks can be subdivided (for example into production, personnel, marketing and finance); RESPONSIBILITY for them delegated; and PAY and reward systems instituted (see JOB DESIGN AND REDESIGN, WORK ORGANIZATION);
  2. CONTROL, by comparing current performance with that planned in order to monitor progress of the work. Such comparisons reveal where additional resources may be needed to achieve desired performance or when plans may need to be modified in the light of experience;
  3. COORDINATION of the tasks being undertaken, which involves synchronizing and balancing work loads and ensuring effective collaboration between the various DEPARTMENTS and GROUPS within the organization;
  4. MOTIVATION of the members of the organization, encouraging them to work effectively in performing their assigned task.

CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT THEORY portrayed management as a rational activity largely concerned with establishing routines and procedures for administering the work. More recently this emphasis has been questioned in a number of respects. Research has shown that much of the manager's working day is spent on tasks other than those suggested in this approach, for example attending retirement presentations, responding to telephone enquiries etc. Much of the manager's job involves ad hoc reactions to events. Other research has shown that managers ‘muddle through’, aiming at achieving satisfactory rather than optimum outcomes (see SATISFICING).

Recent writing on management has emphasized the LEADERSHIP aspect of the managerial function. The key issue here concerns the means by which managers can achieve effective performance from their subordinates. Two basic approaches are identified in the literature (on MANAGEMENT STYLE):

  1. task orientation, where managers' relationship with their subordinates is essentially directive, being primarily focused on getting the job done;
  2. people orientation, where managers show a greater concern for their subordinates' well-being, on the grounds that a contented workforce performs effectively.

Some believe that good leaders are born with certain personal qualities whilst others believe that these can be instilled through MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT. Whatever perspective is taken it should be remembered that leadership involves more than a leader: it also involves subordinates and a context. Good leadership is that which produces appropriate behaviour from others in particular situations. See ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS, BOARD OF DIRECTORS.

References in periodicals archive ?
By diminishing the number of unnecessary repeated sample collections that can result in label errors, and improving the efficiency of the specimen management process, we were able to save more than $100,000 over a year's time.
Mammotome revolve (TM) features an advanced specimen management system capable of collecting and organizing high quality individual tissue samples in numbered, specimen radiograph and pathology-ready chambers that preserve tissue integrity.
0 enable safe, efficient specimen management and workflow automation.
Karina Bienfait, Clinical Pharmacogenomics Operations Lead in Clinical Pharmacogenomics and Clinical Specimen Management, Merck & Company "Best Practices in the Management of Patient Informed Consent"
Total Laboratory Automation (TLA) System: A total automation solution for laboratories that combine several different types of analyzers, integrated systems, and/or workcells with a specimen management and transportation system.
With the use of our Collection Manager for Surszical, there is zero error in surgical specimen management.
8 delivers a faster, more robust functionality, deploys an unparalleled capability for bio specimen management, and it has a fuller set of features and benefits in Financial Management.
Mayo Clinic Chooses 3M Track and Trace Solutions for Specimen Management
Essential to the work of clinical laboratories and to that of healthcare providers as well is proper specimen management.
Path-Tec is focused on improving their customer's client supply and specimen management operations.
Total Lab Automation (TLA): The definition of TLA is the combination of several instruments, consolidated instruments, workcells, integrated workcells, or integrated modular workcells that are coupled to a specimen management and transportation system as well as a process control software component to automate a large percent of laboratory work.
To date, more than 200 samples have been referred through this innovative specimen management initiative.