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The people who administer a company, create policies, and provide the support necessary to implement the owners' business objectives.


1. The persons or institutions that administer a company. That is, management has the responsibility to direct employees, set and enforce policies, and generally ensure that the company fulfills its goals (which management itself often sets). Management is responsible to the board of directors (of a publicly-traded company) and ultimately to the company's owners. In small companies, owners and managers are often the same people.

2. See: Asset management.


The process of organizing and directing human and physical resources within an ORGANIZATION so as to meet defined objectives. The key management roles are:
  1. planning how to carry out the various activities which are required to achieve the objective. This involves establishing an action programme (see BUSINESS PLAN) and an appropriate organization structure within which tasks can be subdivided (for example into production, personnel, marketing and finance); RESPONSIBILITY for them delegated; and PAY and reward systems instituted (see JOB DESIGN AND REDESIGN, WORK ORGANIZATION);
  2. CONTROL, by comparing current performance with that planned in order to monitor progress of the work. Such comparisons reveal where additional resources may be needed to achieve desired performance or when plans may need to be modified in the light of experience;
  3. COORDINATION of the tasks being undertaken, which involves synchronizing and balancing work loads and ensuring effective collaboration between the various DEPARTMENTS and GROUPS within the organization;
  4. MOTIVATION of the members of the organization, encouraging them to work effectively in performing their assigned task.

CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT THEORY portrayed management as a rational activity largely concerned with establishing routines and procedures for administering the work. More recently this emphasis has been questioned in a number of respects. Research has shown that much of the manager's working day is spent on tasks other than those suggested in this approach, for example attending retirement presentations, responding to telephone enquiries etc. Much of the manager's job involves ad hoc reactions to events. Other research has shown that managers ‘muddle through’, aiming at achieving satisfactory rather than optimum outcomes (see SATISFICING).

Recent writing on management has emphasized the LEADERSHIP aspect of the managerial function. The key issue here concerns the means by which managers can achieve effective performance from their subordinates. Two basic approaches are identified in the literature (on MANAGEMENT STYLE):

  1. task orientation, where managers' relationship with their subordinates is essentially directive, being primarily focused on getting the job done;
  2. people orientation, where managers show a greater concern for their subordinates' well-being, on the grounds that a contented workforce performs effectively.

Some believe that good leaders are born with certain personal qualities whilst others believe that these can be instilled through MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT. Whatever perspective is taken it should be remembered that leadership involves more than a leader: it also involves subordinates and a context. Good leadership is that which produces appropriate behaviour from others in particular situations. See ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS, BOARD OF DIRECTORS.

References in periodicals archive ?
Event reporting is voluntary, and the data do not represent all surgical specimen management events.
By diminishing the number of unnecessary repeated sample collections that can result in label errors, and improving the efficiency of the specimen management process, we were able to save more than $100,000 over a year's time.
Of the interventions included in this study, four could be delegated to others: environmental management, specimen management, supply management, and transport.
This entails a holistic approach, including close coordination among the members of the specimen management team, from the clinician who orders the test, to the phlebotomist, to the courier who picks up the specimen, as well as the laboratorian who processes the specimen for testing.
AIPS is a unique system designed to be the sole integrated solution that addresses specimen management, visual review, data capture, quality assurance, regulatory compliance and reporting, proficiency testing and other management functions.
The lab is essential to orchestrating an organization's operational efficiency through integration, specimen management, and connectivity.
To streamline the laboratory process and connect it to other clinical settings, OGHS will use the Horizon Lab[TM] solution for order entry, specimen management, information distribution, billing and financial management.
Horizon Lab[TM], an integrated solution for all laboratory settings, automates the entire laboratory process: order entry, point-of-care specimen collection, specimen management, analytic operations, information distribution, and financial and business performance management.
id([TM]) Patient Identification System for Specimen Management identifies the healthcare provider, the patient, the specimen container, and the order of draw.
Specimen management tracks tube current and final locations and allows you to send in-lab receipt information directly to the LIS.
Total Laboratory Automation (TLA) System: A total automation solution for laboratories that combine several different types of analyzers, integrated systems, and/or workcells with a specimen management and transportation system.