sampling

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sampling

the selection of part of a total population of consumers or products whose behaviour or performance can be analysed, in order to make inferences about the behaviour or performance of the total population, without the difficulty and expense of undertaking a complete census of the whole population.

Samples may be chosen randomly, with every consumer or product in the population having an equal chance of being included. Random samples are most commonly used by firms in QUALITY CONTROL where they are used as a basis for selecting products, components or materials for quality testing.

Alternatively, samples may be chosen by dividing up the total population into a number of distinct sub-groups or strata, then selecting a proportionate number of consumers or products from each sub-group since this is quicker and cheaper than random sampling. In MARKETING RESEARCH and opinion polling, quota sampling is usually employed where interviewers select the particular consumers to be interviewed, choosing the numbers of these consumers in proportion to their occurrence in the total population.

Samples may be:

  1. cross-sectional, where sample observations are collected at a particular point in time, for example data on company sales and the incomes of consumers in the current year, embracing a wide range of different income groups, as a basis for investigating the relationship between sales and income;
  2. longitudinal, where sample observations are collected over a number of time periods, for example data on changes in company sales over a number of years and changes in consumer incomes over the same time periods, as a basis for investigating the relationship between sales and income. See STATISTICAL INFERENCES, QUESTIONNAIRE.
References in periodicals archive ?
The latter probability can be found by dividing the number of correctly classified anthropogenic sound samples to the total number of anthropogenic sound samples.
However, the recording of most of the *.raw files were truncated before the full 192.8 m distance, before any second echo, and also before the full 251 samples; therefore most of the echoes needed padding (extended repetition of the last sound sample in the echo).
In the pulp horn region, both hypomineralised subgroups had significantly greater vascular expression of TRPV1 than sound samples (P <0.05, ANOVA).
You can find several alleged sound samples with a simple search on the Internet.
The investigations in this paper employ a database containing of 940 sound samples from 9 classes of environmental sounds.
Many of the chapters examine the music that support and enhance altered states, with the book overall giving a sound cross-section of the musical features that are salient in these realms (sound samples are available on-line).
Long Island Sound samples were composed of 3, 30-oyster samples collected during spring, fall and summer at a salinity of 28 [per thousand].
What is so far his only CD Katalog [Catalogue] (at own expense, 1996) comes with a booklet of photographs of individual installations and contains twelve sound samples of seven realisations and their sound possibilities in improvisations in which the author is assisted by kindred spirits Jaroslav and Michal Koran, the Norwegian sound artist and singer Siri Austen, and in one sample Vojtech and Irena Havel--a pair of composers who play stringed instruments and are concerned mainly with music on the border between new age and minimalism.
The Loquendo text-to-speech synthesis engine uses the "Unit Selection" concatenate technique on a wide range of sound samples. Loquendo provides a complete product line for servers, desktop, multimedia, PDA and embedded, guaranteeing the same wide range of high-quality voices and languages and the same core engine in all these environments.
By working with artists, they will be able to remix sound samples from computer games, turning them into CDs using the latest Apple Mac Garageband software.
Since then he has embraced the use of computer techno-logy and sound samples and opened the door to a new chapter in what is already a quite remarkable career.
Finally, the Asbestos duo demonstrated the popular trend towards live laptop performance, raiding their hard disk library of sound samples.