And on its part, German Socialism recognised, more and more, its own calling as the bombastic representative of the petty- bourgeois Philistine.
This form of Socialism has, moreover, been worked out into complete systems.
The bourgeoisie naturally conceives the world in which it is supreme to be the best; and bourgeois Socialism develops this comfortable conception into various more or less complete systems.
A second and more practical, but less systematic, form of this Socialism sought to depreciate every revolutionary movement in the eyes of the working class, by showing that no mere political reform, but only a change in the material conditions of existence, in economic relations, could be of any advantage to them.
Bourgeois Socialism attains adequate expression, when, and only when, it becomes a mere figure of speech.
This is the last word and the only seriously meant word of bourgeois Socialism.
The significance of Critical-Utopian Socialism and Communism bears an inverse relation to historical development.
Just as there was "Arab socialism
", there was also "African socialism
" and various other socialisms
in Asia and Latin America--that is, in all the parts of the so-called "global south", most of which won independence from European colonialism in the decades after World War Two.
But before the decade of the 1980s came to a close, it became clear that the emerging system was not recognizable as any kind of socialism
. Even those most permissive in the use of that honorific term, even those prepared to recognize a plurality of socialisms
based on different national contexts, began to see that the reforms in China were not headed toward socialism