The efficacy of various therapeutic approaches has been measured by the amount of improvement in polysomnographic parameters such as the respiratory disturbance index (apneas and hypopneas per hour) and the sleep fragmentation
index (microarousals per hour).
In summary, narcolepsy is a complex disorder with multiple symptoms including excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, sleep paralysis and sleep fragmentation
. The primary pharmaceutical intervention includes the use of different CNS stimulants for excessive daytime sleepiness.
These findings indicate the importance of differentiating between excessive daytime sleepiness in OSA (which is known to be secondary to hypoxemia and sleep fragmentation
) and fatigue, and suggest the possible utility of addressing depression to deal with the latter, Dr.
The physiologic variables that are evaluated in a standard polysomnogram include changes in oxygen saturation, cardiac arrhythmias, arousals caused by respiratory events, and sleep fragmentation
caused by frequent arousals.
We are not sure whether the LAI can serve as an indicator additional to the RAI, reflecting the extent of sleep fragmentation
associated with changes in the severity of illness.
Twenty five percent of middle-aged men are affected by sleep apnoea, and almost three per cent of them experience a severe form of the condition characterised by extended pauses in breathing, repetitive asphyxia and sleep fragmentation
Third, respiratory efforts can lead to sleep fragmentation
, which may activate the sympathetic nervous system and increase arterial blood pressure, leading to hemodynamic disturbances.
"Although it is unlikely that OSA causes dementia, the lowered oxygen levels and sleep fragmentation
associated with OSA might worsen cognitive function," said Lead researcher Sonia Ancoli-Israel, Ph.D., professor of psychiatry at the UC San Diego School of Medicine.
The previous results show that changes in HbA1c may be related to changes in sleep quality and sleep fragmentation
.[sup] Whether CPAP therapy is beneficial to reduce the HbA1c levels in patients with T2DM is still controversial.
Nicotine increases sleep latency and sleep fragmentation
. Other medications associated with insomnia are bronchodilators, corticosteroids, decongestants and some antidepressants.
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a complex clinical syndrome characterized by apnea episodes, sleep fragmentation
, oxygen desaturation, and increased daytime somnolence as a result of recurrent obstructive episodes in upper airways during sleep.[sup] Previous studies have revealed that OSAS is related with many cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, coronary artery disease, arrhythmias, and congestive heart failure.[sup] Basic hemodynamic mechanisms responsible from cardiovascular diseases are increased negative intrathoracic pressure, hypoxemia, and increased catecholamine release.[sup] In OSAS both ventricles are subjected to hemodynamic stress that induces various structural changes.[sup]
Repeated apnea, oxygen desaturation, and sleep fragmentation
during sleep might cause autonomic dysfunction,[sup] which might impact vagus nerve function and subsequently, impact esophageal functions.