fragmentation

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Related to sleep fragmentation: polysomnography, polysomnogram

Fragmentation

1. A means of production in which different parts of the supply chain are located in different countries. Fragmentation occurs to reduce costs of production. For example, the least expensive materials may be in India and the cheapest factory workers in China, while the target retail customer is in the United States or Canada. Fragmentation can occur most easily when there is free trade, or at least low tariffs between all the countries on the supply chain. See also: Globalization.

2. A situation in a decentralized market. This often renders investors unaware of the best price available for their trades, resulting in inefficiency in the market. Fragmentation has become less of a problem with the advent of electronic exchanges and other, similar products.

fragmentation

The lack of full interconnection of the various securities markets. Fragmentation can result in customer orders being sent to markets that do not offer the best available price. Critics claim the inefficiencies of fragmentation can be cured with a central order book that includes orders from all markets.
References in periodicals archive ?
Effects of sleep deprivation and sleep fragmentation on upper airway collapsibility in normal subjects.
Another viable possibility is that apnea/hypopnea-associated sleep fragmentation, rather than hypoxia per se, negatively affects neurological and neuropsychological outcomes.
The effect of sleep fragmentation on daytime function.
Many workers have recognized the significance of EEG arousals in SDB children: the RAI is higher in OASHS than PS children, and as an indicator of EEG arousal, it can effectively reflect the extent of sleep fragmentation associated with various grades of illness.
9 min) Sleep fragmentation measures High arousals per hour of sleep (median, 76.
Waking quantitative electroencephalogram and auditory event-related potentials following experimentally induced sleep fragmentation.
2) OSA is a condition characterized by the episodic cessation of breathing during sleep despite persistent ventilatory efforts, associated with sleep fragmentation , arousals, and reductions in oxygen saturation.
In patients with osteoarthritis (OA), more than half experience pain during the night, resulting in sleep disruption, poor sleep quality, sleep fragmentation and frequent shifts between sleep stages.
Research indicates that sleep fragmentation results in increased emotional reactivity, intensifying negative emotional responses while blunting positive affect," they noted.
Symptoms of OSA include daytime sleepiness, fatigue, non-restorative sleep, sleep fragmentation (waking up several times a night), frequent nocturia (urination at night), and waking up with gasping, choking, or palpitations.
Measures of sleep-related intermittent hypoxemia, but not sleep fragmentation, were independently associated with all-cause mortality.
As discussed above, OSA-related factors such as increased sympathetic activity, sleep fragmentation and intermittent hypoxia are demonstrated to contribute to the development of metabolic dysregulation in terms of insulin resistance (IR) and leptin resistance (LR) (35).