training

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training

the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and knowledge of people so as to improve JOB performance. A distinction can be made between vocational training, i.e. the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and pre-vocational training, i.e. the development of awareness of the world of work and employment. Education develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy which form the bedrock for more specialized occupational skills.

To determine what training is required in an organization or economy, it is beneficial to undertake a training needs analysis. As a first step the main goals or priorities have to be established; then it is necessary to consider what skills are necessary to achieve these objectives. These are compared with the existing stock of skills amongst workers. Any deficiency is referred to as a skills gap and represents the skills that should be provided by training. A comprehensive approach to training will involve a needs analysis, a programme to close this gap and a monitoring and evaluation process to determine whether it has been successful.

Although it is generally accepted that training improves job performance, UK employers are often reluctant to provide training. The UK in fact has a poor record compared with its main competitors such as Germany. Training in the UK is widely viewed as a cost rather than an investment, and one whose potential benefits are difficult to quantify on the balance sheet. Employers fear that employees, once trained, will leave or be poached for higher paid employment.

Traditionally, the training system in the UK was voluntarist (see VOLUNTARISM) in that the state had little role in directing the structures and content of training programmes and institutions. However, state intervention has grown in recent years. Currently, the system of vocational training is overseen by the recently-created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (see NATIONAL VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATION). There is also an emphasis on skill development and training amongst the unemployed in the Welfare-to-Work programme. Participants in this programme receive training as part of work placements. See MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT, ACCREDITATION OF EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING, ACCREDITATION OF PRIOR LEARNING, APPRENTICESHIP, NEW DEAL.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson

training

the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and KNOW-HOW of people so as to improve the performance of the LABOUR FORCE and thus enhance PRODUCTIVITY. A broad distinction can be made between ‘vocational training’, that is, training concerned with the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and ‘general education’, which develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy that form the basis for the development of more specialized occupational skills.

Vocational training is provided by firms through apprenticeships (‘on-the-job’ training), in-company short courses, management development programmes, etc. Governments also sponsor and finance vocational training initiatives as well as undertaking responsibilities for the provision of general education. Currently the system of government vocational training is overseen by the recently created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS, and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (National Vocational Qualifications - NVQs) to encourage training in transferable skills.

Under the NEW DEAL (1998), unemployed youths (in the age group 18–24) and the older long-term unemployed (aged 25 or over), receiving the JOBSEEKERS ALLOWANCE, can be placed on a one-year full-time training course. See INVESTORS IN PEOPLE, DEPARTMENT FOR EDUCATION AND SKILLS.

Collins Dictionary of Economics, 4th ed. © C. Pass, B. Lowes, L. Davies 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Results of the follow-up evaluation, 18 months after the students completed the STCW, were so compelling that we confidently recommend that professional schools teach sensitivity training using the principles of clown care.
Funnily enough, we don't have sensitivity training for all the non-Europeans who now reside in Europe.If we are made to adhere by the moral rules of the Middle East (I mean this in a general way), why can't the people who travel to Europe be made to adhere to the rules of freedom and secularism ;
are interested in survival, not sensitivity training.
Younes (2001) feels that managers can return to their teams and workgroups and create an inclusive and welcoming environment for people with disabilities following sensitivity training. Her reviews of large employer practices support the aspect of awareness/sensitivity training that will improve managers' supervision abilities.
Primarily, this would entail administrative liaison work with local governments and the county welfare system that would focus on correcting imbalances in the bilingual fluency of frontline staff and sensitivity training that focuses on the distinct needs of specific subgroups within the welfare caseload.
The national office of Kappa Sigma fraternity has kicked out one member in connection with the anonymous postings, and the organization plans to hold sensitivity training for the USC chapter.
A hilarious play called Inherit the Baloney enacted a sort of Scopes trial in reverse, with the hero a courageous Christian college professor badgered incessantly by dim-witted colleagues and deans who keep telling him the only way to preserve his faith in a postmodern world is to jettison all the exclusivist truth claims: they wanted him to admit that Jesus was sorely in need of sensitivity training from some wise counselor like Pontius Pilate because 'nobody can surf the web every day and still believe there is such a thing as "truth" or goodness.' Overnight, the tendency of naturalistic rationalism to decay into postmodern irrationalism became a national joke."
In the end, the protest resulted in some changes at the school, including voluntary sensitivity training for DePaulia staffers.
Send Rather's production team to Rush Limbaugh for sensitivity training?
Everyone who really needs sensitivity training will either find an excuse to miss or undermine it; and those who do attend diligently and participate actively probably had no real reason to attend in the first place.
From The Washington Post: "Decaf coffee, sensitivity training, roadside assistance, hybrid cars: These indicators of rampant 'metrosexuality' are enough to make real men fear for their very existence, say the macho editors at Niaxim magazine.
In the fall, city employees will also undergo sensitivity training, and Not in Newark has obtained funding to also train teachers and run local ads addressing self-esteem among queer kids of color.