The possible reasons for the results found in our study are as follows: i) excessive HMGB1 is released owing to brain injury or dysfunction and it leads to elevated HMGB1-TLR4 signaling, which results in increased neuronal excitability; ii) seizure threshold
is decreased and easier to reach in the epilepsy cases, thus occurrence of seizure becomes more frequent; iii) pro-inflammatory cytokines, the release of which is induced by excess HMGB1 and in turn stimulate more release of HMGB1, play key roles in the occurrence and perpetuation of seizures.
Does iron deficiency raise the seizure threshold
? Journal of Child Neurology 1995;10(2):105-9.
(28,29) Liang et al (29) reported that co-administration of valproic acid could mask an underlying decrease of the seizure threshold
caused by antipsychotics such as paliperidone.
Phase 1 of the study involved 240 affected patients, 62% of whom achieved remission after receiving this form of ECT at six times the seizure threshold
thrice weekly for up to 1 month coupled with low- or medium-dose venlafaxine.
Moreover, antipsychotic medication can lower the seizure threshold
. However, the idea that psychosis is a risk factor for developing epilepsy is less studied.
Therefore, the combination seems to be more effective in increasing the seizure threshold
than the individual drug treatment in both the kindling models.
Prostaglandins, which markedly increase following seizures, may contribute to epileptogenesis and a reduction of the seizure threshold
It is clear that increasing the seizure threshold
would reduce the risk of behavioral seizure generalization.
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a typical exogenous inducer of inflammation, was shown to lower the seizure threshold
and increase discharges in rodents by triggering a cascade of inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-[alpha] and IL-1[beta] [13, 14].
PLP, one of the natural substrates of ALP, is the active compound by which pyridoxine mediates essential enzyme activity; PLP deficiency in the central nervous system may reduce seizure threshold
by reducing neurotransmitter (GABA) synthesis (11,12,13,14,15,16).
We performed a PubMed and Chinese database searched for lidocaine combined with the following terms: Seizure, epilepsy, epileptogenic, toxicity, overdose, seizure threshold
, and convulsion.