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Biliary lipid concentration and cholesterol saturation index (CSI) in normolipemic and hypercholesterolemic rats.
Duane WC, Hunningnake DB, Freeman ML, Pooler PA, Schlojner L, Gebhurd RL (1988) Simvastatin, a competitive inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase lowers cholesterol saturation index of gallbladder bile.
Top graphs ((a) and (b)): mineral equilibrium diagram for XH01 (a) and SH02 (b) as representatives of studied geothermal water; middle graphs ((c) and (d)): FixAl results for reconstructing mineral equilibria in XH01 (c) and SH02 (d), fixing the Al concentration by equilibrium with albite and a 100% CO2 gas add back; bottom graphs ((e) and (f)): result showing equilibrium temperature estimations for the Xinzhou (e) and Shenzao (f) thermal waters using the combination of anhydrite/chalcedony saturation indexes (modified from Pastorelli et al.
WaterPOINT 870 is the first fully integrated field handheld system that provides an entire panel of key water quality tests, including measurements for pH, ORP, conductivity, free chlorine, total chlorine, monochloramine, ammonia, total dissolved solids, carbonate alkalinity, calcium hardness, Langelier saturation index, calcium, carbon dioxide, and temperature.
Assuming a pH of 7.5, a moderate calcium hardness of 300 ppm, 650 ppm alkalinity, 2000 ppm TDS, and a temperature of 85 degrees Fahrenheit result in a calculated Saturation Index (SI) of 1.0.
The saturation index (SI) was calculated theoretically from the conductivity; alkalinity, pH, and calcium values (Espigares Garcia & Perez Lopez, 1999).
It is important for techs to monitor pH levels because the number drastically impacts the Saturation Index equation--a formula used to diagnose water's chemical balance.
"If pH does change, for whatever reason, the Saturation Index changes," Lowry says.
That's because although both TA and pH figure into the Saturation index, pH has a larger impact on it.
On the other hand, the Saturation Index uses the actual pH reading in the formula--not a factor--so the change in the pH will have a profound effect on the outcome.
It is interesting that the trend slope declines sharply on the boundary of the saturation indexes -0.5 for witherite and -0.75 for fluorite.