are rod-shaped, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming bacilli that ferment glucose, maltose, and mannitol; almost all produce acid and gas with fermentation (Franco, 1997; Kaye).
Moreover, since Salmonellae
entering the body via the digestive tract can survive until ingested by macrophages, such a vaccine would be effective when taken orally.
This dual chromogen medium enables the isolation of Salmonellae
(including Salmonella typhi and S.
dagger]) After the 1999 Canadian outbreak, FDA encouraged manufacturers to take voluntary steps to ensure the absence of salmonellae
in pet treats.
Food animals are the primary reservoir for human nontyphoidal Salmonella infections; person-to-person transmission of nontyphoidal salmonellae
is uncommon in the United States.
preferentially cause illness in persons who take antimicrobial drugs for medical conditions unrelated to Salmonella infection (7-9).
Rodenticides containing salmonellae
were evaluated during a plague outbreak in San Francisco in 1895 (2); they were found to have no definable impact on the rodent population, but they caused illness and death in humans who prepared and handled them.
The last two decades have seen the emergence and spread of multidrug resistance against the conventional antityphoid drugs (chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole, and ampicillin) among the typhoid salmonellae
, especially in South and Southeast Asia, including Pakistan.
To the Editor: Nontyphoidal salmonellae
are the important causative agents of foodborne diseases in Japan and other industrialized countries.
To the Editor: In the large study by Evans and Wegener recently published in Emerging Infectious Diseases (1), salmonellae
in broiler chickens and pigs significantly decreased after routine in-feed antimicrobial drug use for growth promotion was terminated in Denmark.
We agree with Dahl that particular problems are associated with quinolone resistance in zoonotic salmonellae
and that fluoroquinolones may have reduced efficacy to treat patients infected with Salmonella strains that are nalidixic acid (quinolone) resistant (7).
Typhi, but we did not detect them in any of our nontyphoidal salmonellae
with the same plasmid-encoded resistance (7).