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Gainful employment. Strictly speaking, a job refers to employment by another person or company, but the word is often used to describe self-employment as well. Because individuals are compensated for their work at their jobs, these are considered necessary for a society to function. According to Keynesian economics, the money one earns from a job can create more jobs because the money creates demand for goods and services that must be provided. Supply-side economics, on the other hand, maintains that lower taxes are best for job creation.
Farlex Financial Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All Rights Reserved


  1. a work task or series of work tasks to be performed. For factory operatives the work tasks are often clearly defined as a specific set of machining or assembly operations. By contrast, at senior management level, work tasks are less clearly defined and managers have more discretion as to the range of tasks to be performed and how they are performed.
  2. a unit of good or service for which costs can be ascertained. The job or cost unit could consist of a single order. Alternatively, the job or cost unit could be a batch or group of identical products passing together through production.
Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson


a work task or series of work tasks to be performed in order to produce a good or service. Jobs differ in terms of skills, physical fitness, personality, etc., requirements, and in terms of the decision-making autonomy and responsibilities involved. Some jobs involve a wide-ranging set of work tasks while others may be broken down into a number of narrowly defined activities through a ‘division of labour’. Such SPECIALIZATION is often conducive to achieving high levels of labour PRODUCTIVITY in industries such as motor-car assembly that utilize mass production techniques. In other cases, productivity may be enhanced by grouping together larger numbers of work tasks to form individual jobs. Job design has an important effect on job satisfaction and thus levels of absenteeism, labour turnover, industrial disputes, etc., which affect productivity In some instances the process of specialization has been partially reversed by programmes of job enlargement (adding additional tasks to provide greater variety), 288

job rotation (where workers rotate jobs to reduce monotony) and job enrichment (where workers are given greater scope in deciding how tasks should be performed).

Collins Dictionary of Economics, 4th ed. © C. Pass, B. Lowes, L. Davies 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Mark Crail, head of salary surveys and HR benchmarking at Xpert HR, says: "It's encouraging to see a shift in attitude, even if the movement is still small.
The data for the Salary Survey is collated in part by looking at whether average salary increases were in-line with the average rise in the cost of living.
Given the upbeat outlook, we remain committed to providing honest, consultative advice and we are proud to launch this year's 'Middle East Salary Survey' to visitors here at Cityscape Global," he added.- TradeArabia News Service
The launch of the latest 'Middle East Salary Survey' is important in promoting transparency as there is now significant activity throughout the region, with placements being made in Syria, Qatar, KSA, Yemen, Egypt and Libya.
The data for the Salary Survey is collated in part by looking at whether average salary increases were in line with the average rise in the cost of living.
The data for the salary survey was collected from's website last month based on the response of 10,699 professionals from the UAE, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Kuwait, Bahrain, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria.
The "ARL Annual Salary Survey 2009-2010" reports salary data for all professional staff working in ARL libraries.
The Fall 2009 Salary Survey report shows Class of 2009 bachelor's degree graduates earned an average starting salary offer of $48,633--1.2% below the average of $49,224 for the Class of2008.
The cover photo of a dangling carrot adds a touch of humor to this handbook for library professionals, staff, and human resources personnel, contrasting with the non-nonsense interior explaining how to conduct a salary survey, analyze the data, and use it to design a pay plan that fits an individual library's culture.
has released a salary survey of risk management positions at U.S.-based companies.
The second Middle East Salary Survey conducted by Macdonald & Company reported a combined increase of 14.2 per cent for the two sectors.
The 2008 National Management Salary Survey said redundancy rates across the North-east's senior management teams had increased by 0.7% to 2.5% during the last year, compared with a 1.4% rise nationally to 3%.