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Gainful employment. Strictly speaking, a job refers to employment by another person or company, but the word is often used to describe self-employment as well. Because individuals are compensated for their work at their jobs, these are considered necessary for a society to function. According to Keynesian economics, the money one earns from a job can create more jobs because the money creates demand for goods and services that must be provided. Supply-side economics, on the other hand, maintains that lower taxes are best for job creation.


  1. a work task or series of work tasks to be performed. For factory operatives the work tasks are often clearly defined as a specific set of machining or assembly operations. By contrast, at senior management level, work tasks are less clearly defined and managers have more discretion as to the range of tasks to be performed and how they are performed.
  2. a unit of good or service for which costs can be ascertained. The job or cost unit could consist of a single order. Alternatively, the job or cost unit could be a batch or group of identical products passing together through production.


a work task or series of work tasks to be performed in order to produce a good or service. Jobs differ in terms of skills, physical fitness, personality, etc., requirements, and in terms of the decision-making autonomy and responsibilities involved. Some jobs involve a wide-ranging set of work tasks while others may be broken down into a number of narrowly defined activities through a ‘division of labour’. Such SPECIALIZATION is often conducive to achieving high levels of labour PRODUCTIVITY in industries such as motor-car assembly that utilize mass production techniques. In other cases, productivity may be enhanced by grouping together larger numbers of work tasks to form individual jobs. Job design has an important effect on job satisfaction and thus levels of absenteeism, labour turnover, industrial disputes, etc., which affect productivity In some instances the process of specialization has been partially reversed by programmes of job enlargement (adding additional tasks to provide greater variety), 288

job rotation (where workers rotate jobs to reduce monotony) and job enrichment (where workers are given greater scope in deciding how tasks should be performed).

References in periodicals archive ?
In comparison, when the same question was asked by Macdonald & Company for its European salary survey, only 39 per cent responded with positive expectations, while a mere 31 per cent of the UK salary survey subjects are optimistic of the following year's economic prospects.
In addition to the launch of the Salary Survey 2008, Macdonald & CompanyCOs participation at the premier real estate event will also serve to highlight the consultancy services, which will be offered by experts at the venue.
The Auto Retail Industry Salary Survey 2008 reports on 20 different job functions in the industry, across nine regions.
Presented first is the econometric analysis of the 2006 Salary Survey followed by a comparison with earlier research.
Editor Peter Bill said, 'This year the salary survey shows a continued strong and optimistic industry.
Don't forget to fill out the 2003 Salary Survey Questionnaire on pg 44.
com Compare current salary survey statistics for more than 450 jobs in information technology, marketing and sales, accounting, human resources, consulting, manufacturing, nonprofit, legal, and other fields, from over 7,000 organizations.
The first forty-eight-state salary survey was conducted in 1949 and produced intermittently through the next three decades.
In the spring of 1997, Survey Research Associates, LLC (SRA) began researching the potential for an Internet-based salary survey software product and process.
com is a "Geographic Salary Survey Research Site with forecasting options, best suited for salary and compensation survey research for a small number of jobs or job families" (http://www.
In the April issue of ACCN, I read a member's comment about the Annual Salary Survey.