February 10: Ladywood, robbed Rose Booth, 63, of pounds 80
February 10: Smethwick, robbed Frank Hogben, 72, of pounds 10
February 19: Ladywood, robbed Stanley Bates, 74, of pounds 20, a wallet and a purse
February 22: Smethwick, robbed Emily Preston, 90, of a handbag and contents
February 25: Smethwick, robbed James Welsh, 60, of pounds 80
Navarro argued that they made the difference in the higher probability of pollination he observed in robbed flowers: 71.7 percent setting fruit versus 55.4 percent of unrobbed ones.
For example, previous workers often compared the fates of naturally robbed flowers with unrobbed ones.
We artificially robbed flowers by making a small hole in the side of the corolla near the base of the flower with a pair of dissecting scissors.
On each of the four days, we artificially robbed flowers according to their assigned treatments and recorded: (1) the number of flowers in bloom on each focal plant, (2) each flower's phase, staminate or pistillate, and (3) the percentage of flowers naturally robbed for those plants in the natural nectar-robbing treatment in 1995.
For naturally robbed plants in 1995, we performed a regression of average dye donation per plant on average robbing per plant to determine the relationship between natural levels of nectar robbing and dye donation.
For naturally robbed plants in 1995, we performed separate regressions of the average of each response variable per plant on average robbing per plant to determine the relationship between natural levels of nectar robbing and pollen receipt, percentage fruit set, seed set per fruit, and seed mass.
aggregata plants (Irwin and Brody 1998), and because we had no a priori knowledge of the amount of natural robbing plants would receive, we measured the percentage of natural robbing in three plants per site, suspecting that at least some of those plants would receive similar levels of natural robbing as our artificially robbed plants.