However, setting [gamma] to a very large number also has implications for the

risk-free rate that do not fit the data.

13) The lucrum cessans is the real

risk-free rate of return,

To control for the fragmentation in the

risk-free rate and bank funding costs, we regress the country time dummies on sovereign bond yields.

For one, these economists say that the government is able to finance its projects by borrowing at a

risk-free rate and that this justifies not incorporating a risk premium in the discount rate because the risk does not appear in the government's cost of financing.

It turns out that in most economic models, the two key economic considerations--the

risk-free rate used for discounting expected damages and the size of the risk premium--are connected.

Assume that the spot

risk-free rate, r, in a frictionless market follows a mean-reverting diffusion process

The capital asset pricing model (CAPM) implies that x should equal the

risk-free rate plus a term related to the covariance of the cash flow with the market, that is, x = [r.

Risk-averse investors would always prefer the portfolio possibility line with the highest slope since this would maximize an investor's return in excess of the

risk-free rate for every unit of market risk.

The key point here is that because systemic risk is a product of market imperfections, the financial risk it creates is both a component of the risk premium and the

risk-free rate of return.

Finally, any forecast error in the equity-premium rate pales in comparison with the failure of standard options, which incorporate no shareholder opportunity cost, not even the

risk-free rate on Treasury securities.

The discount rate is made up of two components, the

risk-free rate (to compensate for the time value of money] and the risk rate (to compensate for the uncertainty of the expected future cash flows].

Other critics object to the use of an investment-based discount rate in any circumstances, arguing instead for the use of a

risk-free rate of return (e.