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The stocks with the highest trading volume over a given period of time. Leadership may give an indication of future market movements. That is, a large amount of interest in certain stocks may mean that the market will continue to be interested in them. Leadership may be either good or bad for the market. For example, poor leadership may result from too much speculation, while solid leadership comes from sustainable investing practices. It is also called market leadership.


Leadershipclick for a larger image
Fig. 49 Leadership. Blake and Mouton's managerial grid.


the process of influencing others to achieve certain goals. Effective leadership is often seen as the outcome of leadership qualities (traits) which some people have and some do not. In this conception, leadership is often seen as an autocratic activity, and leadership qualities are thought to include strength of personality, charisma, etc. Unfortunately, research into associated traits has been unable to prove conclusively a positive relationship between aspects of personality and effective management.

Academic work on leadership then shifted its attention away from what leaders are to what managers actually do in leadership roles. Two basic approaches to leadership were identified and have formed the core of theories of leadership and MANAGEMENT STYLE ever since. These are concern for production, as exemplified by SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT, and concern for people, as found in HUMAN RELATIONS philosophy. In the former, managers concentrate on getting the job done and their leadership style is essentially directive. In the latter, managers devote their efforts to ensuring that their subordinates are satisfied in their jobs, on the basis that a contented worker is an effective one. These twin dimensions are combined together in the Managerial Grid, devised by Americans Robert Blake (1918 -) and Jane Mouton (1930 -), as shown in Fig. 49. In their view the most effective form of management is Team Management, where leaders show a marked concern for people and for getting the job done.

However, research findings do not fully support this contention, leading some analysts to suggest that the situation in which leadership occurs needs to be considered too. American writer Fred Fiedler (1922-) has suggested that the extent to which tasks are structured and the nature of the leader -subordinate relationship (including the power resources of the leader) influence the effectiveness of leadership styles. A task-oriented approach is most effective where tasks are either highly structured or fairly unstructured and where the leader-subordinate relationship is very good or very poor. It is in the middling positions that a people-oriented style is most effective. Fiedler believed that managers find it difficult to change their styles and therefore advocated that managers should attempt to modify the situation to enhance effectiveness. Other writers, however, have argued, in what has come to be known as ‘situational management’, that leaders should adapt their style to the demands of the situation. It has been suggested that a critical factor is the job ‘maturity’ of subordinates, i.e. their capacity to direct their own job performance. At low levels of maturity a task-orientation is most appropriate to provide direction. As maturity increases leaders should adopt a people-orientation to provide support whilst reducing the amount of task direction. As individuals reach full maturity the manager can reduce both task-and people-orientation and allow individuals to perform the job as they see fit. In a sense, at this point successful leadership is the absence of overt leadership.

References in periodicals archive ?
The ringleader was jailed for 12 years and six months.
Leggat was the last of the ringleaders to surrender in the 1987 siege at Peterhead.
He was identified in court earlier this week by the judge as a ringleader in the rioting which involved around 200 fans in Albufeira on Monday.
At this point the eldest boy, believed to be the ringleader, confronted the man.
If anybody is a ringleader in trying to oust Mr Duncan Smith I do not know about it and I am certainly not a ringleader.
Asked if he was the ringleader of a gang who hung around outside the school, he said: 'Not really no, I don't think we have got a ringleader.
Each ringleader appointed and controlled about six "Big Heads," each of whom in turn had about five "Little Heads.
During his tenure as the Founder and CEO of Ringleader Digital, Walczak led many industry innovations and introduced new ad formats to the mobile web environment beginning in 2005.
Faisalabad -- A ringleader of a car-lifting gang was arrested along with his accomplice by Faisalabad police on Sunday.
TEHRAN (FNA)- Iraqi helicopters fired several rockets at the positions of the ISIL terrorists in Northern Tikrit, and managed to kill a number of the commanders of the Takfiri group, including a ringleader.
On the directions of CCPO Lahore Chaudhry Shafique Ahmad, a police team headed by incharge investigation Model Town Mahdi Qazmi raided places and arrested five accused of a gang included its ringleader.
Ringleader Zahid Iqbal, 31, and Mohammed Sharfaraz Ahmed, 25, were jailed for 16 years three months.