Genetic association of reticuloendothelial
activity in chickens.
Hepcidin expression is regulated at multiple levels: the expression of hepcidin is induced by iron overload, inflammatory stimuli, or endoplasmic reticulum stress [57, 58, 61]; this mechanism stops the efflux of unwanted iron in the circulation by negatively modulating iron absorption by enterocytes, iron recycling by reticuloendothelial
cells, and iron mobilization from hepatic stores.
Histopathology of biopsy material revealed a mixture of large number of reticuloendothelial
cells, medium and large lymphoid cells with rounded nucleus and small nucleoli and many cells with irregular nuclei suggestive of lymphosarcoma as reported by De Bruijn et al.
Any excessive accumulation in storage sites, primarily the hepatic parenchyma and reticuloendothelial
cells, is shown by raised ferritin levels and percentage saturation of transferrin.
system, and organomegaly is frequently found during examination but this broad range of reports may be due to examiners' experience, quality of physical examination, and duration of the disease (4).
On systemic examination other systems were found to be normal including the reticuloendothelial
17] Extrapulmonary spread of infection is quite rare, likely owing to enhanced immune complex formation and reticuloendothelial
clearance in CF patients.
Hemolysis is classified as either intravascular, occurring within the blood vessels, or extravascular, mediated by phagocytic destruction in the reticuloendothelial
Visceral leishmaniasis is a systemic infection of the reticuloendothelial
system caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania.
Even if the reaction is not severe, delayed haemolysis in the extravascular reticuloendothelial
system can cause renal failure, acute coronary syndrome and coagulation failure.
The epithelioid and giant cells were the products of reticuloendothelial
cell proliferation suggesting the phagocytic activity against the foreign bodies, lesions of the caseated lymph nodes corroborated with the earlier reports [3,5,6].
system of the spleen and kidney were particularly observed to phagocytose the injected colloidal carbon indicating that they are the main organs of immune response in catfish.