7 mm for frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and reticular formation
(according to the atlas of Paxinos and Watson 1982).
Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, Reticular formation
of the entire Pipistrellus abramus, brainstem in cross sections Plecotus auritus (RHINOLOPHIDAE, VESPERTILIONIDAE) Other monographs on bat brains: Schneider, 1957; two species of megachiroptera and 22 species of microchiroptera, Brauer and Schober, 1970, 1976; sixty-five species of phyllostomids, McDaniel, 1976.
Following 30 min PC12 cells exposure to KCN, the morphology of the cell showed noted pathological changes including a significant decrease in cell number; disappearance in cells reticular formation
and the loss in neurites of most cells.
A mutation in the fifth chromosome results in a defect in the [alpha]-1 subunit of the inhibitory glycine receptors in the caudal pontine reticular formation
leading to neuronal hyperexcitability.
Histopathologic lesions in brain of zebu with spongiform encephalopathy and cow with bovine spongiform encephalopathy, Switzerland, 2004 * Site Cow Zebu Brainstem Dorsal motor nucleus of vagus nerve (+) (++) Nucleus of spinal tract of trigeminal (++) (+++) nerve Nucleus of hypoglossal nerve (+) (++) Reticular formation
(++) (++) Nucleus of solitary tract (++) (+++) Vestibular nuclei (++) (+) to (++) Olivary nuclei (++) (++) Cerebellar cortex (-) (+) Midbrain (substantia grisea centralis) (+) to (++) (++) to (+++) Thalamus (++) (++) to (+++) Hippocampus n.
2002) are essential for maintaining a waking state in placental mammals, as is the rostral part of the reticular formation
(Moruzzi and Magoun, 1949), which projects to them.
Topics on the spinal cord and hindbrain include the segmental organization of the head, brain and cranial nerves, the reticular formation
, and the cerebellum, with examinations of the motor and sensory nerves of the cranial brainstorm, those describing the midbrain include descriptions of the tegmentum, tori and optic tectum.
The area of the brainstem known as the parvicellular reticular formation
(PCRF) is believed to function as the vomiting center, where the vomiting reflex is initiated and coordinated.
In another set of studies, we found that bilateral lesions to any one of eight structures: (1) substantia nigra, (2) caudatoputamen, (3) ventral tegmentum, (4) pontine reticular formation
, (5) globus pallidus, (6) ventrolateral thalamus, (7) median raphe, and (8) superior colliculus, significantly affected performance on a wide variety of problem solving tasks (Thompson, Crinella, & Yu, 1990a).
Exercising the reticular formation
stimulates growth of dendrites, which may strengthen and reinforce comprehension and retention of messages.
Attention is controlled by a system that includes cortical sensory association areas, the limbic system, mesencephalic reticular formation
, and nucleus reticularis (Voeller, 1991).
At the base of the brain, in the reticular formation
, the electro-chemical sparks (or energy stimuli) are dispersed and discharges to various locations on the cortex.