Religious factors such as restrictions on female driving and unaccompanied women, coupled with the hot climate, which limits the ability to walk for too long outside, means retailers have a narrow retail gravitation
(1) Reilly published The Law of Retail Gravitation in 1931 after he realized that Newtons Law of Gravitation seemed to loosely express the empirical regularities he observed while conducting several trading area investigations for chain grocery stores in Texas during the late 1920s (Reilly, 1929).
If one adopted this hypothesis, then the law of retail gravitation could be used to calculate the breaking point" between two places, where customers will be drawn to one or another of two competing commercial centers (Anas, 1987, pp.
One of the first and most famous of the models is the Reilly's Law of Retail Gravitation
. In 1931 William J.
Reilly's (1931) Law of Retail Gravitation Models suggests that area choice is a complex trade-off between the general attractions and the general disincentives of shopping at that area.
Reilly, W J, The Law of Retail Gravitation, Knickerbocker Press, New York, (1931).
The study of the ways in which retailers make their location decisions can be traced back as far as the works of Haig[1,2] and the competitive bidding for specific sites based on anticipated future returns; Hotelling's explanation of the clustering of similar stores; Reilly with the famous Law of Retail Gravitation combining the effects on patronage of both distance and centre attractiveness; and Christaller's focus on the "real price" of a good which includes a notional transportation "cost".
 Converse, P.D., "New laws of retail gravitation", Journal of Marketing, Vol.
"New Laws of Retail Gravitation," Journal of Marketing, 14: 379-384.
The Law of Retail Gravitation. New York: Knickerbocker Press.
5 Reilly, W.J., The Law of Retail Gravitation
, Knickerbocker Press, New York, NY, 1931.
[11.] Brown, S., "The Wheel of Retail Gravitation
", in King, R.