remained strong, and many immigration opponents held firmly to their beliefs, but the tide turned dramatically against them in the Cold War years as the nation became a haven for refugees as never before, preparing the way for the major debate on the Hart-Celler immigration reforms of 1965.
But the biggest toll restrictionism
takes is on the civil liberties of Americans.
As Breitman and Kraut succinctly say it, "Long had crafted a delegation that reflected his own commitment to restrictionism
." Richard Breitman and Alan M.
Brogaard points out that the puzzle in question takes the form of a knowability-style paradox, and suggests that restrictionism
is the most satisfactory patch.
Most have seen movements of protest and politicization against restrictionism
, racism, and immigration control.
Although the post-Proposition 227 climate in California made the atmosphere particularly charged, it is important to consider that bilingual education and the bilingual teaching profession is politically "loaded" in most settings in the United States, and different forms of restrictionism
, even through the quality of teacher preparation programs and certification requirements (as was the case in Pennsylvania), have been salient throughout the history of the United States.
A vicious restrictionism
produced a further deterioration in world trade.
(166) See, e.g., Hollifield, supra note 106, at 60 (noting the prevailing politics of "xenophobia, nativism, and restrictionism
"); Messina & Thouez, supra note 70, at 115 (providing statistics on anti-immigration sentiments from 1997); Ford, supra note 17 (examining increasing support for right-wing parties based on concerns about "crime and foreigners"); Warren Hoge, Britain Proposes Changes in Asylum Process, N.Y.
X culminates at a special session of the United Nations held on Ellis Island, thereby reminding the audience of the continuing American debate over free immigration versus nativist restrictionism
. Near the Island, Wolverine and Magneto's minion Sabretooth duke it out atop the crown of the Statue of Liberty.
By contrast, Richard Breitman and Alan Kraut, in their 1987 book American Refugee Policy and European Jewry, 1933-1945, attempted to shift the blame for refugee restrictionism
away from Roosevelt.
They demolished the prestige of Mercantilism, paternalism, and restrictionism
. They exploded the superstitious belief that labor-saving devices and processes cause unemployment and reduce all people to poverty and decay.
(51) However, the view that Buthelezi was primarily responsible for the new restrictionism
did not account for the fact that in eight years of government, the ANC had failed to formulate its own definitive immigration policy.