Resistance and co-operation were at the center of interactions among Latin American regional agreements (regionalism) since 2000 developing into an interactive game.
This empirical study based on secondary material, discourse analysis, and statistical information contributes supporting material to the literature that stresses the agency of developing nations, and regionalism as a foreign policy mechanism to construct support networks and gain parcels of power for their promoting governments (3).
Following this, regional integration in Latin America has experienced an active but fuzzy path, giving way to a third wave of integration and regionalism. In addition to the proliferation of North-South PTAs, the development of a new kind of regionalism emerged in Latin American and particularly in South America during this wave.
Nevertheless, open regionalism, characteristic of the 1990s, has newly taken hold in the Pacific Alliance, which still adheres to some of the traditional trade integration objectives.
(2) By employing the concept of "developmental regionalism
", this article evaluates the nature of Argentina's trade policies towards Mercosur after the financial crisis of 2001/2002 and analyses whether they have produced a potential for development.
The third source of Russell's approach arises from regionalism
having become a focus in recent literary theory.
This seems indeed to be the direction taken by Latin American regionalisms
. For example, the proliferation of organizations and summits entails an increase in costs and pressure on leaders' agendas.
The dynamics of regionalism
derive from the dialectics of regionalisms
with the state and the new economic, social and political actors.
Since the end of the Cold War, the notion of regionalism
in Africa has been undergoing a process of transformation that includes reassessing the role, capabilities and design of regionalism
in this part of the world.
These images, in spite of our knowledge to the contrary, continue to form romantic regionalisms
in contemporary society.
From a liberal-democratic position, reified yet meaningful cultural and political regional identities cannot emerge without regionalism
legitimating itself in popular democratic processes and consciousness; thus, a shift from elite to popular processes that address questions of governance across state borders would be a welcome development.
As Beeson and Stubbs concede in their introduction, regionalism
in Asia is a process in the making; it is more of a political and intellectual project than a reality.