In the companding quantization, the input is first transformed using a nonlinear compressor function, then further quantized using the uniform quantizer
, and finally restored in expander using the inverse nonlinear function.
More specifically, assume the measurement value [mathematical expression not reproducible] is located in the kth quantization interval [[mathematical expression not reproducible]], both Alice and Bob convert their measurements into random key bits using a quantizer
The remaining of this paper is organized as follows: in Section II we present a three-level scalar quantizer
Once the uniform quantizer
is used, the data encoder needs to be selected.
Supervised Learning of Quantizer
Codebooks by Information Loss Minimization.
2) The latter basically states that it is more efficient to use high-dimensional quantizers
Q(s) is transfer function of ideal quantizer
The assumptions that the SPIHT quantizer
makes about the relationship between subbands hold well for scalar wavelet, but they do not hold for multiwavelets for the multiwavelet transform destroys the parent-children relationship that SPIHT presumes as illustrated in Fig.
In general, the performance of both algorithms will be better if the phase data is quantized to a larger number of bits, as long as the 1 LSB error in the quantizer
data is a dominant contributor to the total phase error.
Each IFM receiver also incorporates a digital amplitude quantizer
that characterizes the RF amplitude and generates a standard video signal for measuring RF envelope pulse width and time of arrival data.
The fiber optic interface includes an optical quantizer
on the input and direct drive LED at the output to support small form factor (SFF), low cost, miniature components for 85 0nm 10BASE-FL and 100BASE-SX designs or 1300nm 100BASE-FX fiber implementations.
Other features include an ability to sample signals up to 300MHz, a 12-bit multi-stage quantizer
and low power consumption.