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The norms and shared attitudes that pervade an ORGANIZATION. It may be expressed in symbols, rituals and the language used by organization members. It thus constitutes the distinctive characteristics of an organization. In recent years managerial interest in organizational culture has grown enormously It is believed that the culture will influence how individuals behave at work and hence will affect both individual and organizational performances.

A number of types of culture have been identified in this respect:

  1. power culture, characterized by an emphasis on personal charisma, risk-taking and a low level of respect for procedures. This might be found in a small entrepreneurial organization, where power tends to be concentrated in the entrepreneur;
  2. rôle culture, characterized by well-defined procedures and job roles, and an emphasis on conformity. This might be found in an established BUREAUCRACY for example government administration;
  3. task culture, characterized by an emphasis on problem-solving by expert teams. Groups are formed to deal with particular problems. Once the task is completed the group may be disbanded. Here the culture is one which attaches importance to expertise, though in fact expertise may be less developed in organizations of this sort than in role culture organizations, where job roles are more specialized. Task culture places a much greater emphasis on flexibility and creativity than does role culture;
  4. person-oriented culture, characterized by an emphasis on meeting the needs of individuals in the organization. This is often found in small, ‘alternative’ organizations. It may also characterize small organizations composed mainly of PROFESSIONALS, such as small consultancy companies, where it is deemed important that individuals be given some freedom to shape their jobs so that they can pursue particular professional or other ‘acceptable’ outside interests (for example, being a local councillor).

A concern of many managers in recent years has been that the prevailing culture of their organization is inappropriate, or even obstructive, to a desired change in objectives. For instance, a role culture, where jobs are specialized and well-defined, could obstruct creativity and hence prevent an organization from becoming more entrepreneurial. As a result much attention recently has been devoted to changing cultures. It is doubtful, however, whether managers can actually achieve dramatic cultural change in the short term. Culture is influenced by a complex of factors, such as the character and background of the workforce, many of which are to some extent independent of managerial action. See MANAGEMENT STYLE. MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC, EXCELLENCE CULTURE.

References in periodicals archive ?
Although several authors have reported the degradation of MAH and PAH by different microbial consortia, there are few reports on biodegradation of these compounds by pure culture strains, specifically by sulfate reducing bacteria (Singlenton et al, 2009; Tsai et al, 2009).
In this study, there was no significant difference among groups regarding their antibacterial activity, against pure cultures of E.
Preparation of pure culture of the differentiated Staphylococcus aureus
The goals of the research were: the isolation of pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria out of various natural substrates, the determination of their species, the study of their biological features and the most important production valuable properties, the creation of fermented functional foods on their basis, as well as production testing of the most active strains.
Assis (2003) PCR detection of Clostridiumchauvoei in pure cultures and in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues; Veterinary Microbiology 91: 239-248
Each flask was inoculated with three scoops of 5mm diameter from pure culture containing Petri dishes and incubated at 25OC for 15 days.
The pure culture plates were incubated for 4-5 days and observed it.
Our results confirm the production of the chromone alkaloid, rohitukine, by endophytic fungi isolated in pure culture, outside their host, as was first reported by Mohana Kumara et al.
Description: Gellan gum is a polysaccharide produced by fermentation of a pure culture of Sphingomonas elodea.
Tiny, creamy-white, dry, wrinkled colonies were observed on blood and Endo agar as pure culture the next day ( Greater than 10.