Proof

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Proof

A coin made with a polished die or using some other special method. It may be struck twice to make the images clearer. Proofs generally do not circulate, but are made for collectors or for sale as illiquid assets.
References in periodicals archive ?
Proof beyond a reasonable doubt is the standard applied to the decision about guilt or innocence.
Even though the requirement of proof beyond a reasonable doubt is seemingly foundational in American constitutional law, the phrase does not appear in the Constitution.
Since section 146(2)(a) provides that a statement must be voluntary (requiring proof beyond a reasonable doubt), Justice Fish concluded that adopting a single standard of proof for compliance with each component of section 146 offered significant advantages over a fragmented approach.
"In some cases, the interests at stake are deemed more substantial, requiring a higher standard called 'clear and convincing.' That standard is more than a preponderance but less than proof beyond a reasonable doubt. A party with a clear and convincing standard therefore shoulders a greater share of the risk of an erroneous determination.
(68) Therefore, in the second scenario, the standard for imposing the death penalty remains, as always, proof beyond a reasonable doubt. (69)
A witness to the abuse remains the only proof beyond a reasonable doubt, and witnesses to MSBP are rare.
Generally, the applicable fraudulent conveyance laws require "proof beyond a reasonable doubt" that an entity was established to defraud creditors before a trust will be set aside.
The Supreme Court has long held that fundamental to the right of trial by jury is the principle that defendants can only be found guilty if the jury so finds "upon proof beyond a reasonable doubt of everyfact necessary to constitute the crime with which he is charged."(24) Employing harmless error analysis when an instruction is omitted makes it impossible to determine whether a jury has found the existence of "every fact necessary" and, even if it has, whether it has done so beyond a reasonable doubt.