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Germany was so industrially backward that its incipient proletariat had barely begun to form.
The word 'proletariat'--proletarius in Latin--meant in the ancient world those who served the state by producing children--manufacturing labour-power--because they were too poor to serve it by property.
According to Rae, "It is surely hard to contend that the immiseration and triumph of the proletariat has anywhere taken the form Marx predicted." One hesitates to join the ranks of the living-dead Marxists and start pronouncing on what Marx really meant.
Most sub-Saharan countries have populations who are mostly self-employed in various capacities, and yet the focus of most African labor history has been on wage earners, following the traditional Marxist perspective regarding the emergence of a proletariat. Not coincidentally, such a focus has also eliminated from consideration the class position of most women and most agricultural laborers.
The rest of the list is predicated on the peripatetic proletariat. Sheer volume of pedestrian commerce and limited amounts of prime retail space in the Apkujung in Seoul Korea, Trade House GUM in Moscow, the Tsakalof in Athens, and the Kaufingerstrasse in Munich allow these locations to command the world's top retail rents for the first time.
"Jesus preached the Kingdom -- but it was the Church that came." This is comparable with: "Karl Marx taught communism -- but what we got was Marxism-Leninsm-Stalinism and the dictatorship of the proletariat." The fiercely oppressive Soviet system was supposed to be only a stopgap for the interim period during which the old bad ways were being abolished and the new kind of man was being bred.
"Kmart is the proletariat look for the invisible, more dangerous homosexual who blends in with the average Joe," explains John, who like his brother boasts friendships with assistants at fashion houses such as Gucci and Prods.
O'Donnell did see sisters tussle but couldn't tell the princesses from the proletariat. "Without that information, it cannot be conclusively shown that males, as opposed to all reproductives, are treated especially well," Starks says.
Only when capitalists are overthrown, private properly is abolished, and communal ownership of the means of production is established by an initial dictatorship of the proletariat can economic justice be achieved.
Sitton sets himself the task of examining "recent Marxian theory" to see what, if any, force may remain in the notion of the proletariat as a revolutionary agency.
As demonstrated by every other democratic revolution of our epoch, the only class in Palestine that will prove itself capable of leading a thorough-going revolutionary struggle against British imperialism is the Palestinian proletariat. The proletarian class struggle against economic exploitation unites all toilers and serves as the bridge across all reactionary nationalist barriers.
When in 1917 the Russian proletariat made the first socialist revolution in human history and then defeated the exploiting classes in the civil war it set out to build a workers' state, or the dictatorship of the proletariat as a vehicle for socialist transition toward a classless society.