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a person with a recognized set of skills and knowledge which qualifies them to practise a certain occupation. Usually this knowledge is gained from lengthy TRAINING and is certified by examination, often by a professional association. This pattern of entry to an occupation is similar to that of apprenticeships; however, the professions are usually understood to be those occupations which are located at the top of the occupational structure in terms of status, for example doctors, architects, lawyers etc. In so far as professional associations (for example the Law Society) stipulate the form and content of training and examination, they define the nature of the job tasks and the work standards that should be achieved and they control entry into the profession. Once individuals have been admitted to the profession it is customary in most instances for them to join the association. Professional associations are similar to craft unions (see TRADE UNION) in that they seek to maintain high incomes for their members by restricting entry to these occupations. Some associations (especially those governing public-sector professionals) are registered as trade unions and have become more similar to other unions in recent years, in that they have felt forced to mount industrial action or publicity campaigns to influence government and management policy decisions.

The notion of professionalism, i.e. that professional workers are special by virtue of their knowledge, has been much criticized in recent years. Critics have claimed that it is used to advance sectional interests, for example high income levels, and to prevent regulation by government or employers of the way tasks are carried out. Attempts have been made to weaken the power of certain professions; for instance, the recent trend in the UK Health Service for the allocation of resources to be determined on grounds of efficiency and effectiveness by management teams rather than on medical grounds as defined by doctors and consultants.

MANAGEMENT per se has generally not been viewed as a profession in the UK because there has been little agreement on the skills and knowledge which are integral to management, and no professional body has been able to enforce mini-mum standards. However, numerous associations concerned with particular aspects of management, for example the INSTITUTE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, have identified training requirements and hold examinations in an attempt to achieve professional status. Recently the MANAGEMENT CHARTER initiative has attempted to identify core ‘competencies’ of management as a first step to creating a profession of management.

References in periodicals archive ?
Of the professionally stressed, 68 per cent were at risk of developing depression while of the non- stressed only about 17 per cent were at risk.
Unlike others, it is difficult to persuade professionally qualified people to return to their homes even once a crisis has ended.
But professionally, me as leader of the Conservative Party, her in newspapers, we were going to be pushing the same political agenda.
According to the report, the global value of professionally managed assets rose by eight per cent to $56.
Summary: DUBAI -- The value of professionally managed assets in the Middle East jumped by 10 per cent last year, higher than the global average of eight per cent, according to a report released recently by the Boston Consulting Group (BCG).
BUDDING artists got to see their work professionally framed and displayed when their school put on an exhibition.
Inside, the building will boast a professionally decorated lobby and two elevators for quick access to both levels.
For many of the students it is an introduction to a high level of professionally produced shows.
Some moved directly into the classroom and are now teaching as professionally qualified faculty (see "Emerging Opportunities for Professionally Qualified Faculty," page 34).
Former Cal State Northridge basketball standout Ian Boylan has accepted a contract offer to play professionally with Ginasio, a Division 1 team in Portugal.
Motoring organisation RAC has given the following advice: If the level of flooding has entered the foot wells, don't turn the ignition on and have the vehicle professionally checked; If it has been in water for a long time, contact your dealer; If it has been in the flood for a short time, drive with caution and have the vehicle checked as soon as possible; If it cuts out after being driven through deep water don't attempt to restart it and have it professionally checked.

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