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a person with a recognized set of skills and knowledge which qualifies them to practise a certain occupation. Usually this knowledge is gained from lengthy TRAINING and is certified by examination, often by a professional association. This pattern of entry to an occupation is similar to that of apprenticeships; however, the professions are usually understood to be those occupations which are located at the top of the occupational structure in terms of status, for example doctors, architects, lawyers etc. In so far as professional associations (for example the Law Society) stipulate the form and content of training and examination, they define the nature of the job tasks and the work standards that should be achieved and they control entry into the profession. Once individuals have been admitted to the profession it is customary in most instances for them to join the association. Professional associations are similar to craft unions (see TRADE UNION) in that they seek to maintain high incomes for their members by restricting entry to these occupations. Some associations (especially those governing public-sector professionals) are registered as trade unions and have become more similar to other unions in recent years, in that they have felt forced to mount industrial action or publicity campaigns to influence government and management policy decisions.

The notion of professionalism, i.e. that professional workers are special by virtue of their knowledge, has been much criticized in recent years. Critics have claimed that it is used to advance sectional interests, for example high income levels, and to prevent regulation by government or employers of the way tasks are carried out. Attempts have been made to weaken the power of certain professions; for instance, the recent trend in the UK Health Service for the allocation of resources to be determined on grounds of efficiency and effectiveness by management teams rather than on medical grounds as defined by doctors and consultants.

MANAGEMENT per se has generally not been viewed as a profession in the UK because there has been little agreement on the skills and knowledge which are integral to management, and no professional body has been able to enforce mini-mum standards. However, numerous associations concerned with particular aspects of management, for example the INSTITUTE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, have identified training requirements and hold examinations in an attempt to achieve professional status. Recently the MANAGEMENT CHARTER initiative has attempted to identify core ‘competencies’ of management as a first step to creating a profession of management.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson
References in periodicals archive ?
In another judgement Michael Tierney was censured and fined [euro]1,000 and had conditions attached to his name on the register after being found guilty of professional misconduct.
"We have concluded that Mr Evans' conduct does not amount to unacceptable professional misconduct," he said.
When the court labels an act "prosecutorial misconduct," however, it "may be perceived as reflecting intentional wrongdoing, or even professional misconduct, even in cases where such a perception is entirely unwarranted ..." (11) The danger inherent in the court's overbroad use of the term "prosecutorial misconduct" is twofold.
The Pentagon said "allegations of professional misconduct (against Allen) were not substantiated by the investigation," press secretary George Little said.
Article 343 of the same law stipulates a jail sentence of up to two years and/or a maximum fine of Dh30,000 in the event of injury due to any form of professional misconduct or negligence.
Professional misconduct does not include medical negligence.
Examples of professional misconduct include gross incompetence, sexual misconduct, financial conflicts of interest such as fee splitting or self-referral, felonies, and other unethical behaviors.
The doctor at the centre of the MMR controversy is due to find whether he could face sanctions after being investigated for serious professional misconduct by the General Medical Council (GMC).
" Prima facie there has been professional misconduct on the part of all the five auditors who signed the balance sheet of Satyam Computer," said Uttam Kumar Agarwal, president of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India ( ICAI).
Earlier, Special Judge M L Tahiliyani had revoked the appointment of Anjali Waghmare, the lawyer who was appointed to defend Kasab, on grounds of "professional misconduct".
Timilty was suspended for 365 days pursuant to a June 21, 2007, court order for violating Rule 3-4.3 (Misconduct); Rule 4-8.4 (a) (Professional Misconduct); and Rule 4-8.4(c) (Misrepresentation).

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