product substitutes

product substitutes

products which customers regard as fulfilling the same needs although they are technically dissimilar, e.g. butter and margarine. See ELASTICITY OF DEMAND.
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However, promotion of product substitutes can be a detrimental factor for the global beta glucan market.
However, there exist a number of defensive strategies that firms can utilize in order to avoid both (a) the financial penalties associated with patent infringement; and (b) disruptions in the use/commercialization of their product substitutes. The two major strategies used as primary affirmative defenses in patent infringement litigation involve attempting to (1) prove that the product substitute does not infringe on the patented IPs (i.e., noninfringement defense); and (2) invalidate the patent of the original inventor (Toprani, Maher, & Oliner, 2018; Ford, 2013).
Ministry of Industry and Foreign Trade started working on eliminating low-quality imports, achieving the target of the exports' development plan, saving hard currency and depending on the local product substitutes, in an attempt to decrease the deficit in the trade balance.
Such societies may develop a matrix of product substitutes from the available indigenous product mix and guide the consumers to shift from one product to another when the prices of a certain product are being unscrupulously worked up.
The scheme excludes premises that are refurbished or used by fisheries and aquaculture, shipbuilding, the coal industry, the steel industry, synthetic fibres, the primary production of some agricultural products and the manufacture of milk product substitutes.
There are no product substitutes for graphite electrodes in this process.
yoghurt and other preparations made with milk, milk product substitutes; soya milk (milk substitutes) and preserved soya beans for consumption: edible oils and fats; protein preparations for human consumption; nutritional supplements, namely food concentrates and preparations made of meat, milk, nuts, fruit, vegetables, lipids, characterised by a high protein, vitamin, mineral and/or lecithin content: all included in Class 29.
The study points to the growing opportunity for healthy and natural product substitutes, but also stresses that the product must cater to family's time-pressed schedules by being convenient and easy to prepare.
Many product substitutes are being called "push gloves." Don't be afraid to ask questions, and be savvy when making purchases.
Last year, when the category was outlawed to them, pharmacy owners scrambled to find product substitutes that would deliver traffic and hopefully some of the lost profitability.
For example, a company whose vision is based on the innovation and manufacture of new products would profit considerably from the development of attractive product substitutes for environmental "problem products." Similarly, such a company would benefit from improved manufacturing processes that eliminate the need for hazardous chemicals, or the development of innovative products that mitigate environmental damage from other substances (like catalytic converters for gasoline engines, or oil-eating enzymes for ocean spills).

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